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Dear Prof Scott

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landing_gear

Are the Landing gears always retractable in all airplanes ?.

i.e.

Once the airplanes takes off, the front and rear wheels are always

folded ?.

Once the airplanes wants to Land, the front and rear wheels are unfolded ?.

What are the Pros and Cons with and without having these retractable mechanism for Landing gears in airplanes ?.

Once the commercial airplane takes off by what time the front and rear wheels are folded ?. i.e. after 1/2 min, 1 min, 5 min, 10 min etc ....

Once the commercial airplane has to land before what time the front and rear wheels are unfolded ?. i.e. within 1/2 min, 1 min, 5 min, 10 min, 30 min etc ....

Are both these timings critical i.e. After plane take of and Before Landing and are these timings fixed globally as part of airplane operations ?.

Thanks & Regards,

Prashant S Akerkar

All aircraft have some type of landing gear, as seen in

www.faa.gov/.../handbooks_manuals/aircraft/amt_airframe_handbook/media/ama_Ch13.pdf

Occasionally, the landing gear doesn't work right, as can be seen in

www.wimp.com/landinggear/ Was that a miraculous save, or what?

Landing gear can sometimes be a good place to hide, as in

www.askthepilot.com/lucky-stowaway ,

but at other times, the landing gear can be quite deadly, as seen in

time.com/3053012/air-force-boy-landing-gear/

Currently, if the airplane is small, the landing gear is not retractable, but that does increase the fuel needed. To make it retractable on small aircraft, however, is usually

too expensive to do.

Larger aircraft need to travel at such amazing speeds that if the landing gear were not retractable, the plane would need to land a whole lot sooner and not be able to achieve the speeds that they currently do. Since they are so large, landing gear can be made. Since they are used to make money, and time is money, not putting it in would cost too much.

Now my questions are usually in math, but I don't see any here besides the physics of drag.

Since this is a mathematical question place, the main paper to read is

ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/212_fall2003.web.dir/Will_Salzman/

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