Ancient Languages/Biblical Greek question
In the New Testament Bible, Acts 14:22, strengthening the disciples and encouraging them to remain true to the faith. “We must go through many hardships to enter the kingdom of God,” they said.
My question is the Greek word for "to enter", εἰσέρχομαι ...does it mean in the future sense, present tense, or future tense? The English translation seems to indicate future sense, placing the Kingdom of God beyond the audience's present reach. Is this how you understand the word to mean also?
actually the Greek text of Acts 14:22 reads as follows: “…….διὰ πολλῶν θλίψεων δεῖ ἡμᾶς εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν βασιλείαν τοῦ θεοῦ “ literally meaning:“It is needful that we go in the kingdom of God through many hardships”.
Therefore the verb εἰσελθεῖν, which is the infinitive active of the so-called Second Aorist of the verb εἰσέρχομαι, is not used in the future sense, but simply as a verb of an Object-clause whose subject is the 1st person plural pronoun ἡμᾶς meaning “ we” (See below).
In short, from a grammatical point of view the Greek text of Acts 14:22 does not use the future tense, but an infinitive aorist as a part of an Object-clause depending on the impersonal verb δεῖ meaning “it is needful”.
To conclude, the infinitive aorist εἰσελθεῖν placed in this Object-clause corresponds to an English present tense.
-It is needful = δεῖ (impersonal verb)
-that we go = ἡμᾶς εἰσελθεῖν. Object-clause where ἡμᾶς is the 1st person plural pronoun “we”, while εἰσελθεῖν is the infinitive aorist of εἰσέρχομαι
-in= εἰς (preposition which takes the accusative)
-the kingdom = τὴν βασιλείαν (accusative of βασιλεία, 1st declension, depending on εἰς)
-of God = τοῦ θεοῦ (genitive case)
-through = διὰ (preposition which takes the genitive)
-many = πολλῶν (genitive plural of the adjective πολύς )
-hardships = θλίψεων (genitive of the noun θλῖψις, 3rd declension)