1.)   According to your text, the genus Australopithecus has several identified species which are divided into two main branches. What are those main branches?  Give some information regarding Australopithecus afarensis, Australopithecus aricanus, Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei. What makes them similar and what makes them different? When and where did they live? Where were their fossils recovered?

2.)   What are some of the key structural osteological (bone) changes in Hominids over time beginning with Australopithecus and ending with modern Homo sapiens. Consider feet, knees, hips, hands, and crania (skull). What is the significance of these changes? (Much of this information is in your course packet and class notes.)   

3.)   Consider broad spectrum collectors (hunter-gathers), horticulturalists, intensive agriculturalists, pastoralists and people who practice transhumance. . Define these five life-styles and give an example of each.

4.)   “Codeswitching” is a linguistic phenomenon occurring in most cultures. It can be very subtle or very dramatic. Define “codeswitching” and give examples at least three forms of codeswitching.

5.)   Define “Cultural Relativity” in its weak, intermediate, and strong forms. Why is understanding cultural relativity important in the objective study of cultures throughout the world?

Extra Credit (Optional) 5 points possible
Explain the “Multi-regional Theory” of humans populating the old world. Contrast this theory with the “Single Origin Theory” (AKA “Out of Africa”).

Hi Jwan,  I generally do no do homework for folks.  Also I apologize for getting back later then normal, I was out in the field and did not have system access.

1) the primary difference between the two branches is that one group the "Grassile" group is lighter boned and has teeth that seem a bit more "modern" while the "robust" is heavier boned and has different features that seem more modern like the feet.  These features however could look different on other "species" not yet identified.  There aren't many examples of either.  Most are found in the Afar and southward in Africa.

2) first of all are the morphological changes that were required for bipedalism.  Secondly the skull and neck changes so that the Head move to the top of the vertebral column vs. coming out of the back of the skull.  The eye placement moved towards the from and the bridge of the nose narrowed.  Feet, Knees, hips all rotated to allow for the bipedal locomotion and especially the feet changed to support the weight of the whole body.  This also required the strengthening of the vertebral column.  The teeth also changed morphologically because the diet changed.

3) A hunder-gatherer lives in a "target rich environment" typically. This means that the resources are sufficient to support the population with minimal growth.  However, the Bushment of the Kalahari and the Aborigines of Australia live in a much more harsh environment but have huge ranges in comparison, as compared to the Yanomami of the Amazon or the Pygmies of the Central African Republic. They hunt for meat and gather vegitation.  Some may even garden to a degree.  Horticulturalists have gardens that provide a large percentage of their food stuffs but still hunt and gather to some degree.  Intensive ag is nearly all grown foods and they will trade with pastoralists for meat.  The medium of exchange being grain.
Pastoralists raise live stock and need large territories to graze their animals.

4) In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation. Multilinguals—speakers of more than one language—sometimes use elements of multiple languages when conversing with each other. Thus, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety. (from wikipedia)  

5) Check out the definition on Wikipedia also for extra credit.


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Ralph Salier


Business Anthropologist. Business negotiations in multiple cultures and working with multiple cultures in the business arena. Broad understanding of business practices and business "ethics" in different parts of the world.


25+ years in international procurement and negotiations.


MA Anthropology, Proximics

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