Sir in your archeology concept , you know about how numbers are discovered and when whosoever first discovered numbers, how he came to know that number is a part of mathematics because in those days mathematics concept had been not known
Numbers as a written concept is fairly modern. For millennia before we had written characters we had a notion of counting. Our ancestors used their fingers and toes to count. In some cultures (even modern ones like the Aborigines and Kung Bushment, their counting was limited to their 10 fingers and then "Many". They illustrated the "number" by holding up the correct number of fingers. During the Mesolithic period, when agriculture came into the fore, then written records were developed to measure the harvest and to keep track of ownership. These were generally very simple in nature and a line meant one and many lines "added" up to the quantity being counted. The written numbers came with more sophisticated writing methods such as Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Greek numerals Sanskrit numerals and Arabic numbers. These in large measure developed out of a need to count and keep accounts for trade, storage, value etc... These developed with the development of trade systems, value systems and cities.
The Concept of Zero was first introduced into Math by the Indians and was quickly adopted by the Arab traders who interacted with them. This made mathematics less complex and even accounting was simplified. The concept quickly spread through the known world at the time. Prior to this "Null" did not have a character but was simply an empty space. This lead to confusion and the Zero fixed this problem.
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