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# Archaeology/Help

Question
QUESTION: Hello sir
I agree sir but when they started counting they knew these numbers

I'm not sure I understand your question.   The numbers exist in most languages.  One in English, uno, in Spanish, ei, in Chinese and so on.  So numbers have been used verbally by humans for a very long time.  Written numerals on the other hand are a much later invention.  The ones we have today that most cultures use evolved over time and had input from many cultures including Indians,Arab traders, Hebrews, Phoenicians, and others.  Zero was invented by Indian mathematicians while one was a simple line and so on.

I'm not sure if I have answered your question.

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QUESTION: Sir the number rule in all language is same sir?

Again, I am not sure that I understand your question.  One is generally one in all counting systems or in written numeral systems but not always.  The Chinese character for one does not look like the "Arabic" numeral "1" used in most other cultures.  But for most of the modern world, the numerals are the ones that evolved and came in to general use by 200 AD.  Some cultures still use other symbols for the numerals but generally speaking most use what is call the Arabic Numerals system.

Some primitive cultures do not have written language so do not have numerals.  The Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert in Southern Africa, the Aboriginals of Australia, the tribal peoples of Borneo and so on.  Their numbering systems are quite simple and rarely go beyond 10 or 20.  For some, it is one, two, three, many.

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QUESTION: I understood sir

Sir can u tell me while classylifying the numbers into number system, they known that numbers are used for what purpose and sir natural numbers including 0 are called whole ,mathematicians can classify directly from whole,why they started from natural

I am sorry sir if these questions are irritating to u

Hi Aishwarya,

The concept of whole numbers came first.  You can have a whole apple or a whole cow.  Thus a cow is one cow.  You can have two or three cows.  These are whole numbers.  A zero is actually simply a place holder but mathematics does carry a conceptual value of "null".  For math this is very important beyond just being a place holder.

There are different counting methods such as binary made up of 0's and 1's,  the 10's. Which is what most of use on a daily basis, and is intrinsic to the metric system.  The 60's system used for time keeping, latitudes and longitudes and in geometry for angular geometry.  The English measuring systems use 12's as in feet and inches.    A consistent move towards the metric system on a global basis has been in process for more than 100 years.

Fractional numbers came about as mathematics began to do more complex calculations.  But fractions have been around for a very long time as have the numbers in general.  A half ov a apple, a 1/4 of a bushel, a pint of milk and so on.

Archaeology

Volunteer

#### Ralph Salier

##### Expertise

Archaeologist for the last 30 years. Norh American generalist and Hopwell culture/Red Ocher culture specifically. Lithics Expert and Ground Stone tools.

##### Experience

Past/Present clients
Numerous museums in US and Canada. Several University Anthropology Departments.