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Archaeology/Egyptian writings



If so many Israelis lived under Pharaoh during Moses time, there should have been many Hebrew manuscript records. Is there any such evidence? Also is there archaeological evidence that indicate that biblical Joseph was an authority or lived in Egypt. If many prophets preached monotheism in Egypt, that should have been recorded in Egyptian writings but seemingly they were only polytheists. Is there any evidence of monotheism in Egyptian writings.


Hi Amtry,

Manuscripts would imply written records.  First, few people could read and write during this time period.  The majority of Hebrews were illiterate and relayed on oral tradition.  So, no, no such records are known.  That is not to say that none existed or may have survived over 3000 years. Very few papari survived with Egypiian hyroglyphs either.  Was there a Joseph?  This is within the realm of possibility.  It is known that the Pharoh ordered the building of grain storage facilities in various areas and that large amounts of grain were placed into storage.  We also know that the region suffered a significant drought and that it was a time of great upheaval.  The stored grain sustained the people.  So it matches the Biblical story.  But was it a prophesy? Was it Joseph?  Hard to know.  Again a lack of records from that time makes it hard to know for sure.  

Monotheism was a movement in the region and even an Egyptian Pharoh was a monotheists this is well documented.  Akhenaten abolished the pantheon of gods and established one God.  But so angered the many priests of other sects that it did not last.  This may have influenced Moses later in Egyptian history.  There was an ongoing sect of monotheistic believers that retained this tradition even after the reestablishment of the pantheon of gods.  There also some evidence that the Hebrews were in northeastern Egypt during a period of time but the time frame is unclear.  

Archaeologists are working on many sites and new finds are made all of the time.  Clear evidence of an Exodous may be found at some point but written records are fragmentary at best.  Few empires record defeats or failures.


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Ralph Salier


Archaeologist for the last 30 years. Norh American generalist and Hopwell culture/Red Ocher culture specifically. Lithics Expert and Ground Stone tools.


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Numerous museums in US and Canada. Several University Anthropology Departments.

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