we know that the sun makes different sounds from its magnetic loops  ,but can it make all the sounds hear on earth ,if possible how is it done

The 'sounds' to which you refer are acoustic waves. The Sun's acoustic waves usually start at the surface and travel down into the interior. These acoustic waves curve around because the inside is hottest in the core at the middle of the Sun. Some of the wave types detected using highly refined instruments include:

1)p-mode or acoustic waves have pressure as their restoring force, hence the name "p-mode". Their dynamics are determined by the variation of the speed of sound inside the sun. P-mode oscillations have frequencies > 1 mHz and are very strong in the 2-4 mHz range, where they are often referred to as "5-minute oscillations". (Note: 5 minutes per cycle is 1/300 cycles per second = 3.33 mHz.)

Given these waves have amplitudes of hundreds of kilometers at the Sun's surface, you would not find them naturally occurring on Earth.

2)g-mode or gravity waves are density waves which have gravity (negative buoyancy of displaced material) as their restoring force, hence the name "g-mode". The g-mode oscillations are low frequency waves (0-0.4 mHz). They are confined to the interior of the sun below the convection zone (which extends from 0.7-1.0 solar radius), and are practically inobservable at the surface. Hence Earth would not produce them.

3) f-mode or surface gravity waves are also gravity waves, but occur at or near the photosphere. These also would not be created by Earth.



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Philip Stahl


I have more than forty years of experience in Astronomy, specifically solar and space physics. My specialties include the physics of solar flares, sunspots, including their effects on Earth and statistics pertaining to sunspot morphology and flare geo-effectiveness.


Astronomy: Worked at university observatory in college, doing astrographic measurements. Developed first ever astronomy curriculum for secondary schools in Caribbean. Gave workshops in astrophysics and astronomical measurements at Harry Bayley Observatory, Barbados. M.Phil. degree in Physics/Solar Physics and more than twenty years as researcher with discovery of SID flares. Developed of first ever consistent magnetic arcade model for solar flares incorporating energy dissipation and accumulation. Develop first ever loop solar flare model using double layers and incorporating cavity resonators.

American Astronomical Society (Solar Physics and Dynamical Astronomy divisions), American Mathematical Society, American Geophysical Union.

Solar Physics (journal), The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, The Proceedings of the Meudon Solar Flare Workshop (1986), The Proceedings of the Caribbean Physics Conference (1985). Books: 'Selected Analyses in Solar Flare Plasma Dynamics', 'Physics Notes for Advanced Level'. 'Astronomy and Astrophysics: Notes, Problems and Solutions'.

B.A. Astronomy, M. Phil. Physics

Awards and Honors
American Astronomical Society Studentship Award (1984), Barbados Government Award for Solar Research (1980), Barbados Astronomical Society Award for Service as Journal Editor (1977-91)

Past/Present Clients
Caribbean Examinations Council, Barbados Astronomical Society, Trinidad & Tobago Astronomical Society.

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