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Astronomy/an image incompatible with Kepler first law


If we agree that the famous image of four seasons in the link below is wrong because it violates Kepler's first law in that the Sun is not located in one of the two focuses of the orbit,

1- what conditions in geography and astronomy we must respect to return the Sun to its proper place?
2- would you send me the correct image pleas?
Thank you
Dr Mohamed Barzaq
Notice: I gave the link because I didn't succeed in uploading the image.


Given the Earth's orbit is nearly a perfect circle (eccentricity e = 0.0167) one can say the drawing in the link actually is accurate to within the limits of the orbital parameters- accuracy of drawing instrument. That is to say, the precise drawing showing Sun at one exact focus,  would be essentially indistinguishable from the given one.

A far bigger error is that the relative sizes of Earth and Sun are totally out of proportion to each other, as are the distances.

But again, this comes with the territory in doing any kind of astronomical sketch or representation. In the end, something must be sacrificed.

Hence, to within the limits indicated and given the value of e approaching a perfect circle one can say the drawing is correct.


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Philip Stahl


I have more than forty years of experience in Astronomy, specifically solar and space physics. My specialties include the physics of solar flares, sunspots, including their effects on Earth and statistics pertaining to sunspot morphology and flare geo-effectiveness.


Astronomy: Worked at university observatory in college, doing astrographic measurements. Developed first ever astronomy curriculum for secondary schools in Caribbean. Gave workshops in astrophysics and astronomical measurements at Harry Bayley Observatory, Barbados. M.Phil. degree in Physics/Solar Physics and more than twenty years as researcher with discovery of SID flares. Developed of first ever consistent magnetic arcade model for solar flares incorporating energy dissipation and accumulation. Develop first ever loop solar flare model using double layers and incorporating cavity resonators.

American Astronomical Society (Solar Physics and Dynamical Astronomy divisions), American Mathematical Society, American Geophysical Union.

Solar Physics (journal), The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, The Proceedings of the Meudon Solar Flare Workshop (1986), The Proceedings of the Caribbean Physics Conference (1985). Books: 'Selected Analyses in Solar Flare Plasma Dynamics', 'Physics Notes for Advanced Level'. 'Astronomy and Astrophysics: Notes, Problems and Solutions'.

B.A. Astronomy, M. Phil. Physics

Awards and Honors
American Astronomical Society Studentship Award (1984), Barbados Government Award for Solar Research (1980), Barbados Astronomical Society Award for Service as Journal Editor (1977-91)

Past/Present Clients
Caribbean Examinations Council, Barbados Astronomical Society, Trinidad & Tobago Astronomical Society.

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