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Astrophysics/where does energy goes?


QUESTION: Is it possible to create matter form energy?

ANSWER: It's possible to create matter and antimatter in equal parts from energy, not just one or the other.  There may be an imbalance in the creation that we haven't yet been able to experimentally verify, however, since what we believe we observe in the universe is generally matter and not antimatter...but that's at the boundary of known physics so far.

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QUESTION: If a bell vibrating or ringing in the vaccum then where does its energy goes so that we are not able to listen that sound.In which form it is converted if energy never destroys.

ANSWER: The bell won't make sound, but the clanger will create vibrations in the metal of the bell.  Those will scatter around and become heat, raising the temperature of the bell.  That extra heat can be radiated away through the vacuum.  There's also friction in the pivot point where the bell hangs from, same story with the creation of heat.  Energy does not get destroyed in either process.

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QUESTION: Sir, pls clear a doubt of mine what is radiation and can it be absorbed by any element or substance ????

Radiation is a large general term for any type of energy that is emitted from (or radiates from) some source.  It can refer to electromagnetic radiation or to ionizing radiation.  There are many forms of ionizing radiation, charged particles, neutrons, etc. Electromagnetic radiation can be anything from the radio waves from your cell phone to ionizing electromagnetic radiation like x-rays.  But I can't think of an example of a substance offhand which does not at least statistically absorb radiation in just about all its forms.


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Dr. Stephen O. Nelson


Fusion, solar flares, cosmic rays, radiation in space, and stellar physics questions. Generally, nuclear-related astrophysics, but I can usually point you in the right direction if it's not nuclear-related or if it's nuclear but not astrophysics.


Just moved from being a physics professor at the University of Texas of the Permian Basin into government work. Doctoral dissertation was on a reaction in CNO-cycle fusion, worked in gamma-ray astronomy in the space science division of the naval research laboratory in the high-energy space environment branch.

Government work as a physical scientist with a nuclear focus.

Ph.D. in physics, research was on nuclear fusion reactions important in stellar fusion, further work on space telescope technology.

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