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# Astrophysics/Quasar's, matter, star formation and Einstein's relativity.

Question
Saw the articles on Quasars put up on NASA.com and it got me to thinking. With matter spinning down to the event horizon a portion of it is reflected out in various forms of energy. xray, gamma ray, etc. which are seen as quasars. Einsteins theory says that energy will convert into matter eventually. Correct? And many people theorize that the universe will go dark eventually. So with those thoughts in mind. If Quasars spit out crazy amounts of energy. The power of 25,000 Billion suns is one of the examples i've heard. Wont that energy form into basic elements such as hydrogen eventually for the formation of new stars thereby making the universe and obese black holes one big recycling center?

Brian Hall

Hello,

Your proposition is interesting, but alas won't solve the problem of dark energy eventually forcing all "the lights to go out"  in the cosmos# What Einstein's E = mc^2 indicates is an equivalence between mass and energy, and yes - some degree of interchangeability# However, this doesn't mean prodigious energy #as embodied in quasars#  just turning into enormous amounts of organized mass#

What we do observe is limited cases of what is called pair production - according to Einstein's equation, see e#g#

http://en#wikipedia#org/wiki/Pair_production

Another thing, as noted in the article above, according to quantum mechanics particle pairs are constantly appearing and disappearing as in a kind of quantum 'foam'# This is contingent on the energy-time uncertainty principle such that:

delta E delta t ~ h/ 2 π

where h is Planck's constant#

Thus, the emergence of a quantity of energy, say delta E, is related to the time uncertainty by:

delta E = #h/ 2 π#/ delta t

If h/ 2 π  = 1#054 x 10^-34 J-s and delta t = 10^-30 s then:

delta E = 1.054 x 10^-4 J

or, the allowable energy uncertainty that can produce mass #particles# not greater than that magnitude of joules.

The problem is: How can such energy magnitudes #attendant on such brief time uncertainties# be sustained, say enough to form even one atom of hydrogen? This isn't even reckoning how you are going to get enough mass say to form a stable spherical system for star formation, or even proto-star formation.

Even if one hundred or more odd stars might be able to be generated - say from the pair production energy available from all the quasars in existence, it wouldn't be enough to compensate for the energy -mass diluted by the accelerating cosmos.

For more interesting aspects of these ideas, you might want to read Lawrence Krauss's book, 'A Universe From Nothing', especially Chapter Three, 'The Runaway Universe'.

Astrophysics

Volunteer

#### Philip A. Stahl

##### Expertise

I specialize in stellar and solar astrophysics. Can answer questions pertaining to these areas, including: stellar structure and evolution, HR diagrams, binary systems, collapsars (black holes, neutron stars) stellar atmospheres and the spectroscopic analysis of stars – as well as the magnetohydrodynamics of sunspots and solar flares. Sorry – No homework problems done or research projects! I will provide hints on solutions. No nonsense questions accepted, i.e. pertaining to astrology, or 'UFOs' or overly speculative questions: 'traveling through or near black holes, worm holes, time travel etc. Absolutely NO questions based on the twaddle at this Canadian site: http://members.shaw.ca/warmbeach/FAQ.htm purporting to show a "new physics". Do not waste my time or yours by wasting bandwidith with reference to such bunkum.

##### Experience

Have constructed computerized stellar models; MHD research. Gave workshops in astrophysics (stellar spectroscopy, analysis) at Harry Bayley Observatory, Barbados. More than twenty years spent in solar physics research, including discovery of SID flares. Developed first ever consistent magnetic arcade model for solar flares incorporating energy dissipation and accumulation. Developed first ever loop-based solar flare model using double layers and incorporating cavity resonators. (Paper presented at Joint AGU/AAS Meeting in Baltimore, MD, May 1994)

Organizations
American Astronomical Society (Solar physics and Dynamical astronomy divisions), American Geophysical Union, American Mathematical Society, Intertel.

Publications
Papers appearing in Solar Physics, Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Journal of the Barbados Astronomical Society, Meudon Solar Flare Proceedings (Meudon, France). Books: 'Fundamentals of Solar Physics', 'Selected Analyses in Solar Flare Plasma Dynamics', 'Physics Notes for Advanced Level', 'Astronomy & Astrophysics: Notes, Problems and Solutions', 'Modern Physics: Notes, Problems and Solutions'

Education/Credentials
B.A. degree in Astronomy; M.Phil. degree in Physics - specializing in solar physics.

Awards and Honors
Postgraduate research award- Barbados government; Studentship Award in Solar Physics - American Astronomical Society. Barbados Astronomical Society award for service (1977-91) as Journal editor.

Past/Present Clients
Caribbean Examinations Council (as advisor, examiner), Barbados Astronomical Society (as Journal Editor 1977-91), Trinidad & Tobago Astronomical Society (as consultant on courses, methods of instruction, and guest speaker).