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Bible Studies/Acts 2:25 Predestination?!?


Hello, my name is James. Why do certain study tools key the word proorwmhn (see beforeself middle-voice) in Acts 2:25 ("I saw the Lord always before me") to strong's G4309 instead of G4308? One example is the NET Bible online study tool ( Thank you much in advance for your help!

I'm tempted to say it's a pure transcription error on the part of the person who made the Strongs reference. Does another study tool do the same thing? It's conceivable that the person preparing the NETS study tool passed on an error from the other tool, which he or she was consulting. There is, however, no possibility that prowrizw is the intended verb stem behind proorwmhn. The word prooraw makes perfect sense here, and NETS translates proorwmhn as if prooraw is the stem. I'm blanking on what form we'd expect if the stem were proorizw, but even if it were irregularly formed as proorwmhn, context rules it out as the possible stem. David cannot be saying that he was continuously foreordaining his Lord in his (David's) presence.

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J. Webb Mealy


Qualified to answer questions about the New Testament, including ones that require expert knowledge of Greek, New Testament History, and New Testament Theology. Particular area of expertise is New Testament eschatology (teachings on the end of the world), the Book of Revelation, and the Gospel and epistles of John. Questions about English translations--how they are arrived at, whether they are accurate, and whether there are alternative possibilities. Textual criticism.


Have taught the Bible and New Testament to lay people for 20 years. Translator of the Spoken English New Testament (, author of After the Thousand Years: Resurrection and Judgment in Revelation 20 (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1992). Senior Biblical Studies Editor, Sheffield Academic Press, 1990-1995.

Instructor, Seminary of the Street, Oakland, CA

See my online publication,, which gives an easy-to-understand but thorough introduction to the Christian Good News. See, home of the Spoken English New Testament, the most accurate available translation of the New Testament into natural contemporary English.

PhD, Biblical Studies, Sheffield, UK MA (Honors), Humanities, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY BA (Cum Laude), Religious Studies/New Testament, Westmont College, Santa Barbara, CA

Awards and Honors
Research Paper, "Tracing the Rise of Modalism in Rome," named best graduate paper of the year, Western Kentucky University, 1981

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