what are strategies in plants and animals that use in defending themselves against predators?
There are various methods for defence, depending on the animal.
•camouflage, which may enable them to blend into their surroundings, or make them appear more dangerous than they really are
•hard shells (e.g. turtles, molluscs)
•quills or spines (porcupine, echidna)
•sharp teeth and/or claws
•burrowing into the ground to hide
•speed and agility of movement
The Bugleweed plant is just one example of great plant defenses.
Most animals prefer to eat them. They can’t hit back or run away. Yet plants dominate vast areas of Earth’s continents.How Can Plants Have So Many Natural Enemies And Yet Be So Successful?
Of course, some plants have physical defenses such as thorns and spines. But ecologists are finding that many more plants use chemical weapons to defend themselves.
Some plants make their own insect repellents and insect poisons — a simple but effective strategy
Plant defense against herbivory or host-plant resistance (HPR) describes a range of adaptations evolved by plants which improve their survival and reproduction by reducing the impact of herbivores. Plants can sense being touched, and they can use several strategies to defend against damage caused by herbivores. Many plants produce secondary metabolites, known as allelochemicals, that influence the behavior, growth, or survival of herbivores. These chemical defenses can act as repellents or toxins to herbivores, or reduce plant digestibility.
Other defensive strategies used by plants include escaping or avoiding herbivores in time or in place, for example by growing in a location where plants are not easily found or accessed by herbivores, or by changing seasonal growth patterns. Another approach diverts herbivores toward eating non-essential parts, or enhances the ability of a plant to recover from the damage caused by herbivory. Some plants encourage the presence of natural enemies of herbivores, which in turn protect the plant. Each type of defense can be either constitutive (always present in the plant), or induced (produced in reaction to damage or stress caused by herbivores).
Historically, insects have been the most significant herbivores, and the evolution of land plants is closely associated with the evolution of insects. While most plant defenses are aimed at vertebrate herbivores, such as birds and mammals. The study of plant defenses against herbivory is important, not only from an evolutionary view point, but also in the direct impact that these defenses have on agriculture, including human and livestock food sources; as beneficial 'biological control agents' in biological pest control programs; as well as in the search for plants of medical importance.
Animals protect themselves from predators by
2. Move in large groups
4. Pretend to be dead
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