Explain the process by which oxygen in the atmosphere is inhaled. Describe in detail the route this oxygen will follow to end up in the alveoli. Explain in detail how the oxygen enters the blood, how it is transported in the blood, and the route that it follows to ultimately be delivered to the gastrocnemius muscle. In the muscle there is an open wound. Describe in detail the mechanism of clotting of blood to prevent bleeding and describe the role of red blood cells and other components of blood in this clotting mechanism.
Lungs & Respiratory System Basics
Each day we breathe about 20,000 times. All of this breathing couldn't happen without help from the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, voice box, windpipe, and lungs. With each breath, you take in air through your nostrils and mouth, and your lungs fill up and empty out. As air is inhaled, the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth warm and humidify the air.
Although we can't see it, the air we breathe is made up of several gases. Oxygen is the most important for keeping us alive because body cells need it for energy and growth. Without oxygen, the body's cells would die.
Carbon dioxide is the waste gas that is produced when carbon is combined with oxygen as part of the body's energy-making processes. The lungs and respiratory system allow oxygen in the air to be taken into the body, while also enabling the body to get rid of carbon dioxide in the air breathed out.
Respiration is the term for the exchange of oxygen from the environment for carbon dioxide from the body's cells. The process of taking air into the lungs is called inhalation or inspiration, and the process of breathing it out is called exhalation or expiration.
Even if the air you breathe is dirty or polluted, your respiratory system filters out foreign matter and organisms that enter through the nose and mouth. Pollutants are breathed or coughed out, destroyed by digestive juices, or eaten by macrophages, a type of blood cell that patrols the body looking for germs to destroy.
Tiny hairs called cilia (pronounced: sih-lee-uh) protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose with the breathed air. As air is inhaled, the cilia move back and forth, pushing any foreign matter (like dust) either toward the nostrils, where it is blown out, or toward the pharynx, where it travels through the digestive system and out with the rest of the body's waste.
route this oxygen will follow to end up in the alveoli
how the oxygen enters the blood;;Oxygen enters the blood in the alveoli. The alveoli are little bumpy ball like things at the end of bronchioles in the lungs.
Oxygen enters the blood in the lungs in the alveolar epithelium which is a thin interstitial space, and the capillary endothelium. The lungs are located on either sides of the heart in the thoracic cavity.
mechanism of clotting of blood to prevent bleeding
The clotting mechanism is one of the most important and complex of physiologic systems. Blood must flow freely through the blood vessels in order to sustain life. But if a blood vessel is traumatized, the blood must clot to prevent life from flowing away. Thus, the blood must provide a system that can be activated instantaneously – and that can be contained locally – to stop the flow of blood. This system is called the clotting mechanism.
To treat or prevent abnormal blood clotting, doctors must understand the multifaceted aspects of the clotting mechanism. The following explanation is greatly simplified, but is designed to provide a basic understanding of how the many drugs used to treat clotting problems work, and some basis for assessing the treatments your doctor may prescribe for you.
How does the blood clot?
There are two major facets of the clotting mechanism – the platelets, and the thrombin system.
The platelets are tiny cellular elements, made in the bone marrow, that travel in the bloodstream waiting for a bleeding problem to develop. When bleeding occurs, chemical reactions change the surface of the platelet to make it “sticky.” Sticky platelets are said to have become “activated.” These activated platelets begin adhering to the wall of the blood vessel at the site of bleeding, and within a few minutes they form what is called a “white clot.” (A clump of platelets appears white to the naked eye.)
The thrombin system consists of several blood proteins that, when bleeding occurs, become activated. The activated clotting proteins engage in a cascade of chemical reactions that finally produce a substance called fibrin. Fibrin can be thought of as a long, sticky string. Fibrin strands stick to the exposed vessel wall, clumping together and forming a web-like complex of strands. Red blood cells become caught up in the web, and a “red clot” forms.