Bridge & other card games/rebid by opener
After opening 1 spade with the following hand (5 spades to the Jack-Ace, King, Queen of hearts-doubleton club with no honors-
Ace, Jack and little diamond) what do I rebid to a diamond response? Can I bid 2 hearts with the hope of getting to game in No Trump?
A bid of 2H would show a four card heart suit so bidding 2H here would be very misleading to partner. Although you may end up ok in many cases, it is also quite possible that if partner has four hearts it could go 1S-2D-2H-4H or even 1S-2D-2H-3H-3NT-4H and you will find yourself in a 4-3 trump fit. Misleading partner is never a good idea.
Of course there are no really good choices with this hand. While some people would bid 2NT to just show a 5-3-3-2 distribution not requiring stoppers in both unbid suits. I would be reluctant to do this, though. I would just rebid 2S and see what partner does. Note that after a two level response by partner, rebidding 2S does not promise a six card suit. The reason being that you need a catch all bid for hands that are impossible to bid otherwise. If, hypothetically, you required 2S to show a 6 card suit and also required 2NT to show stoppers in both unbid suits then there would be no bid available for hands like yours which don't fit either category.
Another option might be to bid 3D with good three card support but then partner might be stuck for his next bid.
If you do bid 2S, partner might bid 2NT and you can raise to 3NT. If partner bids 3C you can bid 3NT and if partner bids 3D you can now bid 3H which would no longer show four hearts.
Finally, there are some people who would open 1NT with your hand even with five spades. Opening 1NT on balanced 15-17 point hands including a five card major suit has become fairly popular because bidding is usually a lot easier after a 1NT opening.