Business Process Reengineering/Comprising a Task Analysis
How do I comprise a Task Analysis in an "Optimum factor allocation" setting for practical application?
"Optimum factor allocation" is a part of production Domain, this is where MAJOR FACTOR[s] in the entire production process are classified to identify & measure the efficiency of every production task performed. This can vary from Machine-to-Machine or Man-to-Man or Man V/s Machine.
Scarce resources are identified to (squeeze/reap out) the maximum benefits which u can from it. This in terms can save u time and cost[s].
Different audiences require different instructional strategies & different contexts demand different task analysis methods
To determine the best method for your instruction, you must decide what kind of analysis to perform. In general, there are five kinds of task analyses:
1-job or performance analysis
3-cognitive task analysis
4-content or subject matter analysis
Each of the five methods involves a different procedure for conducting a task analysis and also make different assumptions about the process of learning.
The task analysis process consists of five distinct functions:
1-Classifying tasks according to learning outcomes
2-Inventorying tasks identifying tasks or generating a list of tasks
3-Selecting tasks prioritizing tasks and choosing those that are more feasible and appropriate if there is an abundance of tasks to train.
4-Decomposing tasks identifying and describing the components of the tasks, goals, or objectives.
5-Sequencing tasks and sub-tasks defining the sequence in which instruction should occur that will best facilitate learning.
There are different formats which you can use based on the type of learning outcome like the following
1. Procedural Task Analysis (for procedural skills)
2. Hierarchical or Prerequisite Analysis (for intellectual skills)
3. Information processing analysis (for procedural and cognitive tasks)
4. Cluster Analysis of verbal information (for verbal information skills)
Comprising a Procedural Task Analysis:
Unlike learning a concept or a principle, procedures are strictly defined so that each step is clear and unambiguous to the learner. Procedures can be simple, whereby the learner follows one set of steps in a sequential fashion. However, procedures can also be complex, with many decision points that the learner must make. Regardless of the complexity of the procedure, a procedural analysis breaks down the mental and/or physical steps that the learner must go through so that the task can be successfully achieved. The steps that make up a task are arranged linearly and sequentially, illustrating where the learner begins and ends. Oftentimes, the steps throughout the task, from start to finish, as well as any decisions that the learner must make are arranged in a flowchart, but they can also be done in an outline form. See examples below.
Examples of learning outcomes that are procedural in nature are:
-balancing a checkbook,
-changing a tire,
-formatting a disk, and
-bathing a dog.
How do I conduct a procedural analysis?
Learning goals that are procedures are the easiest goals upon which to conduct an instructional analysis. Generally, application of procedures involves these steps:
1. Determine whether a particular procedure is applicable.
2. Recall the steps of the procedure.
3. Apply the steps in order, with decision steps if required.
4. Confirm that the end result is reasonable.
Comprising a hierarchical Task Analysis:
A hierarchy is an organization of elements that, according to prerequisite relationships, describes the path of experiences a learner must take to achieve any single behavior that appears higher in the hierarchy. Thus, in a hierarchical analysis, the instructional designer breaks down a task from top to bottom, thereby, showing a hierarchical relationship amongst the tasks, and then instruction is sequenced bottom up. For example, if a task has 4 steps in its completion process and has been decomposed into its enabling tasks implying that the learner cannot perform the third task until he/she has performed the first and second tasks respectively.
Do the following to conduct a hierarchical Task Analysis:
The starting point for constructing a hierarchy is a comprehensive list of the tasks that make up a job or function. There are three major steps to constructing a hierarchy:
1. Cluster or group the tasks. For inclusion in a group, select tasks that bear close resemblance to each other. Each task must be included in at least one of the groups, but a task may also be common to several groups. Label the groups with terms that emerge from the job or function being analyzed. Initial clustering or grouping of tasks may be tentative. The composition of the groups may change as a result of decisions you make later on. Do not hesitate to regroup tasks when it seems appropriate.
2. Organize tasks within each group to show the hierarchical relationships for learning. Ask yourself "What would the learner have to learn in order to do this task?" Once the essential prerequisite relationships are shown, reevaluate the relationship between each pair of tasks with the question "Can this superordinate task be performed if the learner cannot perform this subordinate task?" The lower level skill must be integrally related to the higher-level skill. The learning types (domains) of the tasks should match horizontally.
3. Confer with a subject matter expert to determine the hierarchys accuracy. This step occurs concurrently with Steps 1 and 2.
The limits to task analysis are vast.
Please let me know if this has helped you.