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Suggest suitable presentation strategy in the following situations.

 i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people

i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people

There can be little doubt that water is a basic necessity for the survival of humans. There is interplay of various factors that govern access and utilisation of water resources and in light of the increasing demand for water it becomes important to look for holistic and people-centred approaches for water management.

Water Resources and Utilisation
• India has 16 per cent of the world’s population and four per cent of its fresh water resources.
• Estimates indicate that surface and ground water availability is around 1,869 billion cubic
metres (BCM). Of this, 40 per cent is not available for use due to geological and
topographical reasons. 4
• Around 4,000 BCM of fresh water is available due to precipitation in the form of rain and
snow, most of which returns to the seas via rivers. 4
• Ninety two per cent groundwater extracted is used in the agricultural sector, five and three
per cent respectively for industrial and domestic sector.
• Eight nine per cent of surface water use is for agricultural sector and two per cent and nine
per cent respectively are used by the industrial and domestic sector.
While on the one hand the pressures of development are changing the distribution of water in the
country, access to adequate water has been cited as the primary factor responsible for limiting
development. The average availability of water remains more or less fixed according to the natural
hydrological cycle but the per capita availability reduces steadily due to an increasing population.
• In 1955, the per capita availability was 5,300 cubic metres (cu.m) per person per year,
which came down to 2,200 cu. m in 1996.5
• It is expected that by around 2020, India will be a ‘water stressed' state with per capita
availability declining to 1600 cu m/person/year.4 A country is said to be water stressed
when the per capita availability of water drops below 1700 cu. m/person/year.

While accessing drinking water continues to be a problem, assuring that it is safe is a challenge by
itself. Water quality problems are caused by pollution and over-exploitation. The rapid pace of
industrialisation and greater emphasis on agricultural growth combined with financial and
technological constraints and non-enforcement of laws have led to generation of large quantities
of waste and pollution. The problem is sometimes aggravated due to the non-uniform distribution
of rainfall. Individual practises also play an important role in determining the quality of water.
Water quality is affected by both point and non-point sources of pollution. These include sewage
discharge, discharge from industries, run-off from agricultural fields and urban run-off. Water
quality is also affected by floods and droughts and

can also arise from lack of awareness and
education among users. The need for user involvement in maintaining water quality and looking at
other aspects like hygiene, environment sanitation, storage and disposal are critical elements to
maintain the quality of water resources.

Bacterial contamination of water continues to be a widespread problem across the country and is
a major cause of illness and deaths with 37.7 million affected by waterborne diseases annually.
The major pathogenic organisms responsible for water borne diseases in India are

The Central Pollution Control Board monitoring results obtained during 2005 indicate that organic
pollution continues to be predominant in aquatic resources. Organic pollution measured in terms
of bio-chemical oxygen demand (BOD) and coliform count gives an indication of the extent of water
quality degradation in different parts of the country. It was observed that nearly 66 per cent of the
samples had BOD values less than acceptable limits while 44 per cent of the samples indicated
the presence of coliform while according to the BIS there should be no coliform in drinking water
Another major cause for concern is the pollution of ground and surface water from increased
fertiliser and pesticide use in agriculture and from industrial sources. The consumption of
fertilisers shot up from 7.7 million tonnes in 1984-85 to 13.9 million tonnes in 1994-95 and that
of pesticides from 24,305 tonnes in 1974 to 85,030 tonnes in 1994-95.
The rise in the usage of such compounds has degraded the quality of surface water resources by
causing nitrate contamination. The World Bank has estimated that the total cost of environmental
damage in India amounts to US$9.7 billion annually, or 4.5 per cent of the gross domestic
product. Of this, 59 per cent results from the health impacts of water pollution.12


1. Supporting awareness drives:
Supporting awareness drives: One of the major challenges is to make people aware on the need to consume safe water. There are examples where despite being provided potable water
by the government, people drink water from contaminates surface sources. The government needs to support civil society and organisations involved in increasing awareness. An
integrated campaign can result in wide spread information dissemination amongst the masses on the ways and means of preventing contamination of water sources.

2. Testing and remedial action: There is an urgent need to enhance the monitoring network by establishing monitoring stations across all regions and seasonal assessments of all water
sources. In case of contamination being detected, an action plan for dealing with sources
should be provided. The challenge lies in establishing well equipped laboratories with well-
trained staff. This also calls for training of people and infrastructure development.
3. Capacity building of communities: The roles of panchayats are becoming more important and stress is being laid on community-based approaches in dealing with water-related problems. A prerequisite for increasing community participation is training of people form the communities
so that they are able to make well-informed decisions. The objectives of decentralisation can
come about only if there is an attitudinal change among government functionaries as well as
the people, with respect to decentralisation, transferring authority and responsibility to the
people at the community level.

4. Inter-agency coordination:
agency coordination: One major bottleneck in an effective policy formulation and implementation has been the current institutional set-up involving various government
agencies. There is a fragmented approach at the state and central level with the involvement
of numerous agencies in the supply and management of water.

5. Making the service provider accountable:
Making the service provider accountable:
Making the service provider accountable: Article 21 of the Constitution of India, relates to the
Protection of Life and Personal Liberty and the right to pollution-free water is guaranteed under
this provision. The user has the right to know whether water being provided at source is free
from any contamination as claimed by authorities.

6. Water quality standards and provision of water under the Food Law Bill: The quality of drinking
water supplies in India by public agencies is presently governed by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) specifications IS: 10500-1991. In case of drinking water monitoring, standards such as
IS: 2488, for sampling methods and IS: 3025 for testing procedures should also be adhered to
8. Role of environment sanitation and hygiene: A direct relationship exists between water,
sanitation, health, nutrition and human well being. Consumption of contaminated drinking
water, improper disposal of human excreta, lack of personal and food hygiene and improper
disposal of solid and liquid waste have been the major causes of diseases in our country.

9. Awareness:
Awareness: The user should be made aware of the importance of preventing contamination of water and also of the importance of clean and healthy surroundings near water sources.
Effective IEC campaigns by civil society will play an important role in spreading awareness. One
has to keep in mind that such campaigns should be based on the local needs and problems
and use tools that are easily understandable by the people.

10.Accountability: Users should also realise their individual responsibility in maintaining the
quality of water supplied to them. Cultural and behavioural practices like open defecation,
bathing of cattle results in contamination of water sources. The responsibility of maintaining
the safety of water provided also rests with the users. Factors like contamination at source and
storage in clean vessels lies with the users.
11.Community Based Water Quality Monitoring: Many water quality problems are caused due to
communities being unaware of the different aspects of managing and maintaining the quality
of water resources. Raising their awareness of appropriate practices will help them realise the
grim realities of depleting water sources and at the same time help in engaging them in
monitoring and maintenance.
12.Maintenance: The lack of maintenance of rural water supplies and infrastructure is an area of
concern. This may be due to lack of funding capacity, apathy or unwillingness on the part of the
communities to handle operation and maintenance.

13.Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Looking for alternate water sources: Water Harvesting
Rain Water Harvesting and subsequent recharge of groundwater can help lower the
concentration of minerals in aquifers. Setting up community-based water harvesting units will
involve creating social mobilisation, awareness and confidence among all sections of the
14.Dual water supply and waste water treatment
Dual water supply and waste water treatment
Dual water supply and waste water treatment
To reduce the burden on fresh water sources, the option of dual water system is being worked
out in several parts of the country. The success of this system lies in the fact that filtered
purified water is used only for drinking purposes while other source of water may be used for
purposes other than drinking. This is also is cost saving measure as resources spent on
providing clean water is saved by using alternate sources. Waste water treatment can also be
another effective means of reducing the burden on freshwater sources.
15.Exploring simple, low
Exploring simple, low
Exploring simple, low-cost treatment technologies
cost treatment technologies
cost treatment technologies
Once contamination is detected in a water source, there is need for treatment. In case of
rural areas, modern water purification technologies might not be viable. In villages, it is
important that simple technologies that are easy to use and can be operated without much
technical know-how be promoted.

16.Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Revival of traditional water conservation structures
Traditional water conservation structures like tanks, lakes, ponds have been in use in India
since ages. These served as sources of water for people by capturing rainfall and surface
runoff. However in the past few decades one has seen many of these structures becoming
17.Community enterprise for water
Community enterprise for water
Community enterprise for water
Communities, civil society, technology provider can form enterprise for delivery of water
services. Each of the stakeholders plays an important role in the operation and maintenance of
water purification system and delivery.

Awareness: A large part of rural India is inaccessible to conventional advertising media. Only 41 per cent rural households have access to TV. Building awareness is another challenge in rural marketing. A common factor between the rural and the urban consumer is the interest for movies and music. Family is the key unit of identity for both the urban and rural consumer. However, the rural consumer expressions differ from his urban counterpart. For a rural consumer, outing is confined to local fairs and festivals and TV viewing is confined to the state-owned Doordarshan. Consumption of branded products is treated as a special treat or indulgence. Hindustan Lever has its own company-organized media. These are promotional events organized by stockists. Godrej Consumer Products, which is trying to push its soap brands into the interior areas, uses radio to reach the local people in their language. Coca-Cola uses a combination of TV, cinema and radio to reach the rural households. It has also used banners, posters and tapped all the local forms of entertainment. Since price is a key issue in the rural areas, Coca-Cola advertising stressed its `magical' price point of Rs 8 per bottle in all media. LG Electronics uses vans and road shows to reach rural customers. The company uses local language advertising. Philips India uses wall writing and radio advertising to drive its growth in rural areas.
Group Influences
Humans are inherently social animals, and individuals greatly influence each other.
A useful framework of analysis of group influence on the individual is the so called reference group—the term comes about because an individual uses a relevant group as a standard of reference against which oneself is compared. Reference groups come in several different forms. The aspirational reference group refers to those others against whom one would like to compare oneself. For example, many firms use athletes as spokespeople, and these represent what many people would ideally like to be. Associative reference groups include people who more realistically represent the individuals’ current equals or near-equals—e.g., coworkers, neighbors, or members of churches, clubs, and organizations. Finally, the dissociative reference group includes people that the individual would not like to be like. For example, the store literally named The Gap came about because many younger people wanted to actively dissociate from parents and other older and "uncool" people. The Quality Paperback Book specifically suggests in its advertising that its members are "a breed apart" from conventional readers of popular books.
Reference groups come with various degrees of influence. Primary reference groups come with a great deal of influence—e.g., members of a fraternity/sorority. Secondary reference groups tend to have somewhat less influence—e.g., members of a boating club that one encounters only during week-ends are likely to have their influence limited to consumption during that time period.
Another typology divides reference groups into the informational kind (influence is based almost entirely on members’ knowledge), normative (members influence what is perceived to be "right," "proper," "responsible," or "cool"), or identification. The difference between the latter two categories involves the individual’s motivation for compliance. In case of the normative reference group, the individual tends to comply largely for utilitarian reasons—dressing according to company standards is likely to help your career, but there is no real motivation to dress that way outside the job. In contrast, people comply with identification groups’ standards for the sake of belonging—for example, a member of a religious group may wear a symbol even outside the house of worship because the religion is a part of the person’s identity.

Social Influence & Reference Groups
We already know that a consumer's cognitive state has a large impact on his or her behavior in the rural marketplace.

Social Norms also have tremendous impact on the behavior of consumers in the rural marketplace. All behavior is driven by some motivating force and the motivating force that drives purchasing behavior is social acceptance. In other words, consumers are often influenced in their purchasing decisions by whether or not they believe that a particular purchase will or will not lead to social acceptance.
Of course, not everyone aims to be accepted by everyone else. Individuals usually care most about what their refernece group thinks about a particular purchase or subject.
A reference group is "one or more people that someone uses as a basis for comparison or point of reference in forming affective and cognitive responses and performing behaviors".
Thus marketers must pay close attention to the reference groups of their target markets. Marketers must remember when they are creating an image and advertisements for their product, that they must keep in line with the reference groups' expectations.

Reference Groups, Community, Family in the RURAL AREAS.

I. Reference groups are important to consumer behavior, especially in the rural sector.

II. There are many types of groups: normative, comparative, formal, informal, aspirational, contactual, disclaimant.

III. The family is one of the most important reference groups in the rural sector.

IV. Family functions influence behavior.

V. Families (and marketers) use many of the same strategies to influence behavior.

in influencing individuals behaviors using



1.BY MAKING ''STRONG'' [BC] AND ''STRONG'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PUBLIC LUXURIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' GOLF CLUBS'' as an example.

2.BY MAKING ''WEAK'' [BC] AND ''WEAK'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PRIVATE NECESSARIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' MATTRESSES'' as an example.

3.BY MAKING ''STRONG'' [BC] AND ''WEAK'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PUBLIC NECESSARIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' WRIST WATCHES/ CLOTHINGS'' as an example.

4.BY MAKING ''WEAK'' [BC] AND ''STRONG'' [PC] associated with
reference groups to PRIVATE LUXURIES, it can influence rural buyers to
product groups like '' TV SETS/ VIDEO GAMES '' as an example.

People like to think of themselves as making their own consumption choices. In truth, such decisions are very much shaped by the individual’s particular social context
Studies suggest that buyers name interpersonal sources more frequently than any other source in describing their external search efforts.

The power of word-of-mouth communication to motivate attitudes and behaviors is well known.

Recommendations from someone who knows something about the individual is often more useful than what experts or critics have to say.

People tend to define their social context locally rather than globally.

A reference group, or comparison group, is a group whose presumed perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors are used by an individual as the basis for his or her perspectives, attitudes, or behaviors.

Types of Reference Groups
Formal and informal
The level and direction of affect (or emotional response) that the group holds for an individual
Degree of contact
Primary and secondary

Three types of product choices:
Search goods
Products for which it is possible to observe the quality of the product from observation.
Experience goods
Require experience before it’s possible to ascertain product quality.
Importance of “Surrogate experience” – the reported experience of someone else.
Credence goods
one for which even after purchase and consumption it’s difficult to evaluate quality.
The unique features of rural India which call for special attention and thus,subsequent changes in the application of marketing concepts are as follows:
a) Traditional Outlook:
The rural consumer values old customs and tradition. Basic
cultural values
have not yet faded in rural India. Buying decisions are highly influencedby social customs, traditions and beliefs in the rural markets.

b) Levels of Literacy
: - The literacy rate is low in rural areas as compared to urban areas.This comes in way of the marketer in
promoting the product.
Advertising is very expensive making it difficult to communicate with the target audience.

c) Lack of Proper Communication and infrastructure facilities:
- Nearly fifty percentof the villages in the country do not have all weather roads. The Infrastructure Facilitieslike roads, warehouses, communication system, financial facilities are inadequate in ruralareas making physical
distribution becomes costly.

d) Many Languages and Dialects:
- The number of languages and dialects
widelyfrom state to state region to region and probably from district to district. Even though thenumbers of recognized languages are only 16, the dialects are estimated to be around 850.

e) Low Per Capita Income:
- Even though about 33-35% of gross domestic product isgenerated in the rural areas it is shared by 74% of the population.Hence the per
Capita incomes are low compared to the urban areas. Normally the rural consumers spent a majority of their income in basic necessities, which makes them very
price sensitive
Few of the available options in
The traditional media are


Folk Theater & Song,

Wall Painting,

Demonstration, Posters,

Agricultural Games,

NGO’s network The need for innovative means of communication in rural area can be appreciated by thecase study
where advertisement on hand pumps and ponds helpedin selling more soaps to rural customers.
Combining the above two points we would like to stress the need toconcentrate on both product development and communication in order to win the mindspace of the average rural Indian. Again a concept touted by the marketing gurusregarding product and promotion strategies in International markets (analogy extendableto domestic companies moving from urban to rural areas as well) can be used.In order to achieve success company should avoid straight extension. Rather some formof adaptation be it in preferably product or communication or both. In case of deeppockets, product inventions suited for Indian conditions would be able to generate morereturns rather then a simple copied strategy from abroad or urban markets.
a.) Rural Marketing Vehicle (RMV)
Marketers need to make more on- ground contactwith their target audience as well as make demonstration of products as consumers inrural markets rely on the 'touch and feel' experience. One of the ways could be usingcompany delivery vans which can serve both the purposes.
b.) Melas and Haats:-
According to the Indian Market Research Bureau, around 8000melas are held in rural India every year and annual sales at melas amount to Rs.3,500crore. Besides these melas, rural markets have the practice of fixing specific days in aweek as Market Days when exchange of goods and services are carried out.

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