Careers: Business/Servic Mktg


1.   Assume you are a team member of the marketing research department of a low cost domestic airline. Your manager has asked you to evaluate the service quality of the  airline. How would you go about It.? What service quality dimensions would you use to evaluate the same?

4.   Being the marketing manager of a leading domestic tours and travels company of your country, discuss what kind of demand and supply challenges you may face.  How would you overcome those challenges? Explain.

1. Assume you are a team member of the marketing research department of a low cost domestic airline. Your manager has asked you to evaluate the service quality of the airline. How would you go about It.? What service quality dimensions would you use to evaluate the same?
1.Assume you are a team member of the marketing research department of a low cost domestic airline. Your manager has asked you to evaluate the service quality of the  airline. How would you go about It.? What service quality dimensions would you use to evaluate the same?
Service quality is a comparison of expectations with performance.
A business with high service quality will meet customer needs whilst remaining economically competitive. Improved service quality may increase economic competitiveness.
This aim may be achieved by understanding and improving operational processes; identifying problems quickly and systematically; establishing valid and reliable service performance measures and measuring customer satisfaction and other performance outcomes.
From the viewpoint of business administration, service quality is an achievement in customer service. It reflects at each service encounter. Customers form service expectations from past experiences, word of mouth and advertisement. In general, Customers compare perceived service with expected service in which if the former falls short of the latter the customers are disappointed.
The accurate measurement of an objective aspect of customer service requires the use of carefully predefined criteria.
The measurement of subjective aspects of customer service depends on the conformity of the expected benefit with the perceived result. This in turns depends upon the customer's expectation in terms of service, they might receive and the service provider's ability and talent to present this expected service. Successful Companies add benefits to their offering that not only satisfy the customers but also surprise and delight them. Delighting customers is a matter of exceeding their expectations.
Pre-defined objective criteria may be unattainable in practice, in which case, the best possible achievable result becomes the ideal. The objective ideal may still be poor, in subjective terms.
Service quality can be related to service potential (for example, worker's qualifications); service process (for example, the quickness of service) and service result (customer satisfaction).
Dimensions of service quality
A customer's expectation of a particular service is determined by factors such as recommendations, personal needs and past experiences. The expected service and the perceived service sometimes may not be equal, thus leaving a gap.
Ten determinants that may influence the appearance of a gap .
Competence is the possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. For example, there may be competence in the knowledge and skill of contact personnel, knowledge and skill of operational support personnel and research capabilities of the organization.
Courtesy is the consideration for the customer's property and a clean and neat appearance of contact personnel, manifesting as politeness, respect, and friendliness.
Credibility is the factors such as trustworthiness, belief and honesty. It involves having the customer's best interests at prime position. It may be influenced by company name, company reputation and the personal characteristics of the contact personnel.
Security is the customer feeling free from danger, risk or doubt including physical safety, financial security and confidentiality.
Access is approachability and ease of contact. For example, convenient office operation hours and locations.
Communication means both informing customers in a language they are able to understand and also listening to customers. A company may need to adjust its language for the varying needs of its customers. Information might include for example, explanation of the service and its cost, the relationship between services and costs and assurances as to the way any problems are effectively managed.
Knowing the customer means making an effort to understand the customer's individual needs, providing individualized attention, recognizing the customer when they arrive and so on. This in turn helps in delighting the customers i.e. rising above the expectations of the customer.
Tangibles are the physical evidence of the service, for instance, the appearance of the physical facilities, tools and equipment used to provide the service; the appearance of personnel and communication materials and the presence of other customers in the service facility.
Reliability is the ability to perform the promised service in a dependable and accurate manner. The service is performed correctly on the first occasion, the accounting is correct, records are up to date and schedules are kept.
Responsiveness is to the readiness and willingness of employees to help customers in providing prompt timely services, for example, mailing a transaction slip immediately or setting up appointments quickly.
the determinants were reduced to Five: tangibles; reliability; responsiveness; service assurance and empathy.
Service Quality Model (or) GAP model
The service quality model or the ‘GAP model’ highlights the main requirements for delivering high service quality. It identifies five ‘gaps’ that cause unsuccessful delivery. Customers generally have a tendency to compare the service they 'experience' with the service they 'expect' . If the experience does not match the expectation , there arises a gap.
GAP 1:
Gap between consumer expectation and management perception : This gap arises when the management does not correctly perceive what the customers want. For instance – hospital administrators may think patients want better food , but patients may be more concerned with the responsiveness of the nurse.

GAP 2 :
Gap between management perception and service quality specification : Here the management might correctly perceive what the customer wants ,but may not set a performance standard. An example here would be that hospital administrators may tell the nurse to respond to a request ‘fast’ , but may not specify ‘how fast’.

GAP 3:
Gap between service quality specification and service delivery : This gap may arise owing to the service personnel. the reasons being poor training, incapability or unwillingness to meet the set service standard.

GAP 4 :
Gap between service delivery and external communication : Consumer expectations are highly influenced by statements made by company representatives and advertisements. The gap arises when these assumed expectations are not fulfilled at the time of delivery of the service. For example – The hospital printed on the brochure may have clean and furnished rooms , but in reality it may be poorly maintained – in this case the patient’s expectations are not met.

GAP 5:
Gap between expected service and experienced service : This gap arises when the consumer misinterprets the service quality. The physician may keep visiting the patient to show and ensure care, but the patient may interpret this as an indication that something is really wrong.
Measuring service quality
Measuring service quality may involve both subjective and objective processes. In both cases, it is often some aspect of customer satisfaction which is being assessed. However, customer satisfaction is an indirect measure of service quality.
Measuring subjective elements of service quality
Subjective processes can be assessed in characteristics (assessed be the Servqual method); in incidents (assessed in Critical Incident Theory) and in problems . The most important and most used method with which to measure subjective elements of service quality is the Servqual method.
Measuring objective elements of service quality
Objective processes may be subdivided into primary processes and secondary processes. During primary processes, silent customers create test episodes of service or the service episodes of normal customers are observed. In secondary processes, quantifiable factors such as numbers of customer complaints or numbers of returned goods are analysed in order to make inferences about service quality.
Approaches to the improvement of service quality
In general, an improvement in service design and delivery helps achieve higher levels of service quality. For example, in service design, changes can be brought about in the design of service products and facilities. On the other hand, in service delivery, changes can be brought about in the service delivery processes, the environment in which the service delivery takes place and improvements in the interaction processes between customers and service providers.
Determinants of Service Quality
RELIABILITY involves consistency of performance and dependability.
It means that the firm performs the service right the first time.
It also means that the firm honors its promises. Specifically, it involves:
—accuracy in billing;
—keeping records correctly;
—performing the service at the designated time.
RESPONSIVENESS concerns the willingness or readiness of employees to provide service. It involves timeliness of ser-
—mailing a transaction slip immediately;
—calling the customer back quickly;
—giving prompt service {e.g., setting up appointments quickly).
cowsrencs means possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service. it involves:
—knowledge and skill of the contact personnel;
—knowledge and skill of operational support personnei;
—research capability of the organization, e.g., securities brokerage firm.
Access involves approachability and ease of contact. It means:
—-the service is easily accessible by telephone (lines are not busy and they don't put you on hold};
—-waiting time to receive service [e.g., at a bankl is not extensive;
—convenient hours of operation;
—convenient location of service facility.
counresv involves politeness, respect, consideration, and friendliness of contact personnel (including receptionists.
telephone operators, etc.). It includes:
—consideration for the consumer's property (e.g., no muddy shoes on the carpet);
—clean and neat appearance of public contact personnel.
COMMUNICAUON means keeping customers informed in language they can understand and listening to them. It may
mean that the company has to adjust its language for different consumers-—increasing the level of sophistication
with a well-educated customer and speaking simply and plainly with a novice. It involves:
—explaining the service itself;
—explaining how much the service will cost;
—explaining the trade-offs between service and cost;
—assuring the consumer that a problem will be handled.
CFlEDlBlLlTY involves trustworthiness, believability. honesty. It involves having the customer's best interests at heart.
Contributing to credibility are: -
—company name;
—company reputation;
-—-personal characteristics of the contact personnel;
—-the degree of hard sell involved in interactions with the customer.
SECURITY is the freedom from danger, risk, or doubt. It involves:
-—physical safety (Will I get mugged at the automatic teller machine?};
-—financial security lDoes the company know where my stock certificate is?l;
—confidentiality (Are my dealings with the company privatei’).
UNDERSTANDING/KNOWING THE cusromen involves making the effort to understand the customer's needs. It involves:
-—learning the customer's specific requirements;
-—providing individualized attention;
—recognizing the regular customer.
TANGIBLES include the physical evidence of the service:
—physical facilities;
—appearance of personnel;
—tools or equipment used to provide the service;
-—physical representations of the service, such as a plastic credit card or a bank statement;
—other customers in the service facility

o   1
Make a list of all your customer touch points. Touch points occur whenever a customer has contact with your brand---whether it's a mundane sales receipt or a controversial corporate blog post. recommends that you first list all the ways that you make contact with your customers and determine the call to action at each of these touch points. Then test to ensure that each touch point not only allows your customers to perform the appropriate and desired action, but that they collectively best serve your customers.
o   2
Empower your front-line staff with effective communication and regular training. Keep your customer service representatives in the loop by ensuring that they are the first to know about all about corporate news and product releases. This will build strong brand ambassadors and confident phone representatives---adding up to great customer service.
o   3
Create and conduct customer service surveys. Conduct professional surveys through your marketing research department or through an outside vendor as well as by sending general polls and surveys through email newsletters and online feedback forms. When you know exactly what your customers want, you are better equipped to give it to them.
o   4
Strive toward transparency. Your customers no longer accept what you tell them at face value. They make judgments about your company through what their friends are saying on blogs, forums, podcasts, social media tools, review sites and more. Don't fight it. Be open and honest and don't be afraid of starting a blog or a presence on leading social media sites. Keep the conversation going and your service will improve.

From a business prospective, customer service takes an important role in client retention. It is a crucial requirement for maintaining a good relationship with existing customers and attracting new ones at the same time. The impact of relationship management could either make or break a business. One word from an unsatisfied customer makes a negative mark on your business name.
1.   Attitude
o   Great customer service requires great attitude. A people-oriented individual with an outgoing, friendly and welcoming personality succeeds in the customer relations field. Providing satisfaction to customers entails going the extra mile for them. Being polite and having a pleasant approach in handling customer concerns makes your service team effective.
Positive Drive
o   Be driven to give the right solution to your customers. Most of the time customers become irate when you are not able to deliver and solve their concerns. Be confident and give them a concrete workable answer to their problems. Handle every concern as though your customers are the most important people in your life.
o   Building an excellent relationship with customers helps you maximize sales and production; however, positive attitude and drive are nothing without the skill to solve the problems. Familiarize yourself with the important business details, such as the terms, tools and processes, so you can also educate your customers. Do not be content with what you know; always strive for continuous self-improvement, which you can also apply in the business. Study your customer demographics so you can understand and relate to them.
o   There are various customer behaviors that are dependent on the service they receive. Good customer service requires the capability to understand behavior diversity. Learn how you can effectively appreciate and give value to the uniqueness of each customer. No matter how difficult your customers may get, do not lose your patience. Remember to empathize with your customers' feelings. Starting your sentences with phrases like "I understand" or "I'll be glad to help you today" helps you build a good impression for your customers.
Good Listener
o   Listen to your customer -- and listen well. It is important to pinpoint the exact service they need from you. This helps you to determine the right solution for their concerns.
Taking Ownership
o   Show your customers that you are taking ownership of their issues and needs. Let them know and feel that you are willing to do what it takes to please them.
The Customer Quality Service Survey
DIRECTIONS: This survey asks you about how well a business serves customers. Show your opinion by circling one of the five (5) numbers next to each statement. If you think the company does much worse than expected select 1. If the company does much better than expected select 5. If your feelings are not strong, circle one of the numbers in the middle.
Much worse
Than expected   2
Somewhat worse
Than expected   3
About what
I expected   4
Better than
expected   5
Much better
Than expected

1.   The quality of our equipment.   1   2   3   4   5   
2.   The appearance of our physical facilities.   1   2   3   4   5   
3.   The appearance of our employees.   1   2   3   4   5   
4.   The appearance of our materials (pamphlets, statements, etc.)   1   2   3   4   5   
5.   Delivering on promises to do something by a certain time.   1   2   3   4   5   
6.   The sincerity of our interest in solving your problems.   1   2   3   4   5   
7.   Performing service right the first time.   1   2   3   4   5   
8.   Providing services at the time we promise to do so.   1   2   3   4   5   
9.   The accuracy of our records.   1   2   3   4   5   
10.   Telling you exactly when services will be performed.   1   2   3   4   5   
11.   Receiving prompt service from our employees.   1   2   3   4   5   
12.   The willingness of our employees to help you.   1   2   3   4   5   
13.   Never being too busy to respond to your requests.   1   2   3   4   5   
14.   Employee actions that instill confidence in you.   1   2   3   4   5   
15.   The safety you feel in transactions with our employees.   1   2   3   4   5   
16.   The courteousness of our employees.   1   2   3   4   5   
17.   The ability of our employees to answer your questions.   1   2   3   4   5   
18.   The individual attention you received from us.   1   2   3   4   5   
19.   The convenience of our operating hours.   1   2   3   4   5   
20.   The personal attention you received from our employees.    1   2   3   4   5   
21.   Having your best interests at heart.   1   2   3   4   5   
22.   The ability of our employees to understand your specific needs.   1   2   3   4   5   
Overall Quality   
23.   How would you rate the overall service you received?   1   2   3   4   5   
24.   Considering the time, effort and money you spent with us, how would you rate the overall value provided?   1   2   3   4   5   

4] Being the marketing manager of a leading domestic tours and travels company of your country, discuss what kind of demand and supply challenges you may face.  How would you overcome those challenges? Explain.
Potential for the travel and tourism industry in India is enormous. However, at the same time, the industry faces numerous challenges, of which the most critical is lack of proper infrastructure.
Various challenges/issues faced by the domestic travel and tourism industry in India:
•   Lack of proper infrastructure
•   Human resources
•   Service levels
•   Lack of adequate marketing and promotion
•   Taxation
•   Security
•   Regulatory issues
Lack of proper infrastructure
Infrastructure needs for the travel and tourism industry range from physical infrastructure such as ports of entry to modes of transport to urban infrastructure such as access roads, electricity, water supply, sewerage and telecommunication. The sectors related to the travel and tourism industry include airlines, surface transport, accommodation (hotels), and infrastructure and facilitation systems, among others.
Access and connectivity
To harness India’s tourism potential, several efforts are being taken for opening new destinations and exploring niche segments. However, infrastructure facilities such as air, rail, road connectivity, and hospitality services at these destinations and the connecting cities are inadequate. This remains a major hurdle for development of tourism. Roadways form a vital network in the tourist industry with almost 70% tourists in India travelling by road. Moreover, many tourist circuits depend on roads. Despite numerous efforts to improve road infrastructure, connectivity remains a major problem. There is a greater need for strengthened road and rail network, development of more expressways, and tourist-specific routes to improve connectivity to various locations across different regions.
Aviation infrastructure is also critical since it is a major mode of entry for inbound tourism. Passenger traffic is expected to increase in the coming years; however infrastructure facilities at airports are cause for concern. Expansion and development of airports at major gateway cities is underway to cater to the increasing passenger traffic. However, in addition, airport facilities at important secondary cities and tourist destinations also need to be improved to be able to handle greater passenger traffic.
Amenities available at various tourist locations and en route need to be improved. These include basic amenities such as drinking water, well maintained and clean waiting rooms and toilets, first aid and wayside amenities (to meet the requirement of the tourists travelling to tourist destinations) such as lounge, cafeteria, and parking facilities, among others.
India scores poorly in terms of availability of these infrastructure facilities. Inadequate infrastructure facilities affect inbound tourism and also could lead to an increase in the outflow of domestic tourists from India to other competitive neighboring countries. Hence, for the industry to register healthy growth, issues concerning all the related sectors need to be addressed.
Human resource
Availability of skilled manpower is a major challenge faced by the travel and tourism industry, one of the largest employment generators in the country. To sustain growth in the travel and tourism industry, trained manpower/ workforce is required at every level — managerial, supervisory, skilled or semi-skilled. Challenges faced at each level are different. At mid and senior management levels, the industry faces talent crunch and at the front-line staff level, although human resources are adequate, a boom in other service industries such as banking, retail, airline and BPO have resulted in shortage of manpower at this level for the travel and tourism industry. Thus, we have a demand-supply mismatch with respect to manpower in the travel & tourism and hospitality sector in India. A study conducted by Ministry of Tourism suggests that existing supply of human resources do not cater to even 40% of the demand. Thus, the industry has no alternative but to fill the void with untrained resources. Such a high proportion of untrained manpower would adversely affect quality of services offered to the tourists.
Attrition, shortage of tourism training infrastructure, qualified trainers, and lack of proper strategies and policies for human resource development also affect the industry. The industry needs to address these problems at the earliest.
Service level
In addition to tour operators and hotel staff, tourists interact with persons from different backgrounds, occupations and experience. Such people include staff at bus/railway station, immigration staff at airports, taxi/coach operators, ticketing/ travel agencies, small hotels, dhabas/roadside eateries, staff at heritage sites, and tour guides, among others. The degree of service offered by these various stakeholders has a significant impact on determining the tourist’s overall experience of India as a tourist destination. The government has taken initiatives to promote responsible tourism by sensitising key stakeholders of the tourism industry through training and orientation, to develop a sense of responsibility towards tourists and inspire confidence of foreign tourists in India as a preferred destination. One such major initiative is the “Atithi Devo Bhava” campaign. More such efforts are required to improve the degree of service across various operators.
Marketing and promotion
Marketing and promotion of India as a major tourist destination is critical for the industry to achieve its potential. Lack of adequate budgetary support for promotion and marketing, compared with competing tourist destinations, is a major reason for India lagging behind as a tourist destination. Marketing under the “Incredible India” campaign helped place India as a good tourist destination on the global tourism map. Indian tourism products are promoted primarily by the Ministry of Tourism with the involvement of state governments through the State Tourism Development Corporations. Newer tourism concepts, which include cruise tourism, adventure tourism, agri tourism or rural tourism, are emerging in India and these require support to develop and flourish. Hence, greater marketing push for these different products is required. To remain competitive in the fiercely competitive field, India needs to change its traditional marketing approach to a more competitive and modern approach. There is a need to develop a unique market position and the brand positioning statement should capture the essence of the country’s tourism products: i.e., they should be able to convey an image of the product to a potential customer.
Travel and tourism in India is a high-taxed industry, which makes India expensive as a tourist destination. This is affecting the growth of the industry in India and India is losing out to other low-cost destinations. Inbound tourism is the one most affected. Various taxes are levied across the entire industry right from tour operators, transporters, airline industry to hotels and these include service tax, luxury tax, tax on transportation, tax on aviation turbine fuel (airline industry), and various taxes on transportation. In addition, these tax rates tend to vary across different states in the country.
Security has been a major problem as well for growth of tourism for a number of years. Terrorist attacks or political unrest in different parts of the country have adversely affected sentiments of foreign tourists. Terror attacks at Mumbai in November 2008 dealt a strong blow to tourism in the country. The terror attacks raised concerns of safety. In addition, insurgency in different parts of the country also mars India’s image as a safe destination. Following the terror attacks in Mumbai, security at tourist spots, airports and hotels has been beefed up to regain confidence of tourists. However, the government needs to take a proactive approach in addressing these issues and in averting the potential impact on the industry.
Cyber crime is another major challenge the travel industry faces. Use of Internet in the travel and tourism industry has increased rapidly in recent years and has emerged as one of major segments for online spends. However, some of the biggest frauds have been detected in this segment and the issue of online security has assumed significant importance. While the online travel industry has registered robust growth, major concerns relating to security of online transactions persist. The industry needs to take measures to make the process of online bookings more secure and transparent and also needs to create awareness regarding this.
Regulatory issues
For inbound international tourists, visa procedures are seen as a hindrance. A number of countries competing with India for tourists provide visa on arrival. India should provide visa on arrival for more countries or for certain categories of tourists for a specific duration.
A number of projects in the tourism infrastructure segment and in the hotels industry are delayed due to non-attainment of licenses and approvals on time. The government recently cleared the long-standing proposal for single window clearance for hotel projects to hasten the process of infrastructure development. Implementation of this proposal would help development of tourism and hospitality infrastructure in the country. There is a greater need for speedier clearances and approvals for all projects related to the industry.
India’s size and massive natural, geographic, cultural and artistic diversity offers enormous opportunities for the travel and tourism industry. The promotion and aggressive marketing measures undertaken by the government is expected to aid influx of tourists. The industry would also benefit from introduction of new forms of tourism and development of niche segments.
Medical tourism in India has gained considerable popularity in recent years. India has a major cost advantage in this field compared with other countries. In addition to cost advantages, Indian healthcare industry offers state-of-theart equipment, technological advancement, qualified and experienced medical personnel and a blend of modern and traditional medicines. Thus, medical tourism has immense potential in India.
Opportunities also exist in ecotourism, adventure tourism, and cruise tourism. Eco-tourism is increasing in popularity, evident in the development of eco-friendly hotels and tour packages. With increasing environment awareness and consciousness among tourists and given efforts undertaken by the government and private players, the ecotourism segment is expected to record handsome growth in the coming years.
India holds immense potential in adventure and cruise tourism. India’s greatest adventure tourism assets are Himalayas and its mighty rivers. The peak period for adventure tourism is the “lean period” of cultural tourism. Development of adventure tourism can make India a round-the-year tourist destination. The cruise industry is one of the most promising industries in India. However, strong efforts need to be made to develop this industry. Other forms of tourism such as agri tourism, pilgrimage tourism, heritage tourism, and MICE tourism also hold enormous potential.
Healthy economic growth recorded in past few years, especially in the services industry, has led to increase in business travel. Higher disposable income and affordability have increased domestic leisure travel in India. Foreign tourist arrivals in India have also grown. The industry’s performance was hit in 2009 due to the global economic slowdown, terror attacks in Mumbai (November 2008) and H1N1 virus. However, the industry has shown signs of recovery in the first half of 2010. This is a clear indicator that the long-term prospects for the Indian travel and tourism industry are bright. India is expected to witness increased tourist activity both in the business and leisure segments in the coming years. International inbound traffic is expected to grow rapidly with increasing investment and trade activity. India has been identified as one of the fastest-growing countries in terms of tourism demand.
The travel and tourism demand is expected to  reach US$ 266.1 bn (` 14,601.7 bn) by 2019. During 2004–2009 travel and tourism demand in India increased at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16.4% to US$ 91.7 bn (` 4,412.7 bn) and foreign exchange earnings from tourism increased ~13% to US$ 11.39 bn.
-first workout  our  own plan
-then  work  the  tourism   association  for  group   action.
A tourism marketing plan helps guide THE  marketing decisions by assigning tasks, choosing marketing messages, and allocating funds to promote your area. It solidifies what you will say and how you will say it to entice potential visitors to your area. A successful plan requires specific information about the people who travel to your area and what they want while they stay there. Here is an easy-to-follow guide to help you write your tourism marketing plan.

•   Define  THE  objectives. These should be broad-reaching goals your organization would like to accomplish through a marketing plan. For example, you could attempt to increase the number of tourists who come to your area or the number of dollars each visitor spends in local shops.
•   2
Perform a SWOT analysis. SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors that could affect your position in the marketplace (such as plentiful natural features or a lack of banquet halls). Opportunities and threats represent external forces that affect your marketing capabilities (such as untapped tourism markets or an extended recession that affects tourism spending).
•   3
Create a community or area profile. Make a master list of the features your area offers including lodging, restaurants, retail shops, attractions, parks, water features and other amenities that will appeal to travelers.
•   4
Identify THE   target markets. Survey your visitors to determine who they are and what they like to do. Ask for demographic information (such as gender, age, income and home town) that will help you purchase the appropriate media in the right markets. Create market segments based on targeted characteristics (for instance, families living in a nearby city who take day trips to your area or retired couples from a neighboring state who visit your community annually).
•   5
Choose marketing objectives for each market segment. For instance, you could want to increase awareness of day-tripping opportunities in the market segment that already visits your area for day trips.
•   6
Create THE  marketing strategies. For each targeted market segment, find the most suitable media for sharing your travel message. Most publishers and media suppliers offer demographic information to help you match your marketing points to their audience. For example, target day-trippers in the local newspaper or on radio, but focus marketing efforts toward travelers from outside the area in regional magazines and tourism brochures.
•   7
Plan THE  implementation. Assign marketing tasks to specific personnel and determine how you will execute your marketing strategies. Create a timeline that details who, what, when, where and how for each marketing task.
•   8
Write THE   budget. Include how much you have to spend and how you plan to spend it. Don't forget to include incidental expenses such as paper (for printing letters).
•   9
Develop an evaluation plan. Marketing without analyzing its effectiveness wastes money. Create a way to measure your tourism marketing efforts (such as including a code or using a dedicated number for particular media to measure response).
Marketing a travel destination is different from most other kinds of marketing. For one thing, marketers need to market the destination to both a business to business (B2B) and a business to consumer (B2C) audience. They need to get tour operators and other travel-related companies interested in partnering with a venue, while at the same time marketing the venue directly to tourists who are planning trips of their own. Fortunately, balancing channels and opportunities is simple with a plan.
1.   Considerations
o   A tourism marketing plan needs to take into account the goals of marketing, such as increased visitors or increased revenue per visitor, measurement of those goals, the means of achieving those goals in terms of specific marketing initiatives and channels, and the marketing budget and how it will be allocated to various marketing channels.
Budget and Channels
o   Budgeting adequately for each marketing channel has become a challenge in recent years as the number of channels for tourism marketing has expanded. In addition to print venues, the importance of online channels has increased exponentially with the proliferation of online self-service tourism portals, and social media. Historical data on the past performance of specific channels can provide guidance on budget allocation, but in the case of newer channels, such as social media, a certain amount of guesswork as to the future value of the channel is necessary when planning budget and other resources. In general, the budget should be balanced not only between B2B and B2C marketing, but also between print and online channels.
Online Channels
o   Online channels offer highly measurable and cost-effective marketing. Encompassing email, social media, search engine marketing, online advertising and more, online marketing now accounts for the bulk of many marketers' efforts and budgets. For tourism marketing plans, it is essential to allocated efforts and budget for targeted initiatives across all these channels for both B2B and consumer marketing. For instance, email marketing plans should include programs for both bus tour operators and past visitors.
Print Channels
o   Print literature is a considerable source of publicity in the tourism industry, and sufficient budget and planning must go into the creation of venue literature. Materials such as brochures, posters, and postcards, if attractively designed and broadly distributed, can provide tremendous exposure in front of the tourism consumer, and provide support in the B2B realm as well as a takeaway for tourism conference attendees. Print advertising also continues to have a value in tourism marketing, in spite of its high costs. Planning the design, production and distribution of print literature is vital for any tourism marketing program.
o   Local convention and visitors bureaus provide a tremendous wealth of resources for tourism marketing. They advocate for their regions at the state and local levels, provide group advertising opportunities in both B2B and B2C publications and create marketing channels of their own, such as email newsletters for potential visitors to a region and a free online directory of events and venues, where local destinations can market themselves for free. In addition, staff attend trade shows and can provide lists of leads to local venues. Any tourism marketing plan needs to take into account how best to use the resources made available through the local visitors' bureau.

Market Tourism Products

A website is an important tourism marketing tool.
With changes in the economy, political upheaval and safety concerns, the travel industry has changed for both consumers and tourism professionals. Whether in good times or bad, marketing is a vital part of a tourism business: it convinces customers to travel and helps them realize that it is possible no matter what their constraints. As you plan a marketing campaign for your tourism products, consider how you can alleviate customer concerns and reach them when they are open to travel possibilities.
o   1
Build a website and optimize it for key phrases. Because consumers often book their travel online, design a website that looks professional and secure so that customers feel safe when handing over their credit card information. Optimize the site for search engines based on keywords and phrases that your ideal customer is most likely to use when looking for your types of tourism products. If you do not have the necessary design or coding skills, hire a web design firm to ensure that the job is done right.
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Advertise on travel websites. The number of blogs, online magazines, and information websites about travel is endless; capitalize on existing readership with simple banner advertisements. Choose travel websites that your target audience is likely to read, and pay for ads that appear "above the fold," on the top of the page where they can be seen without scrolling. Design advertisements that are simple, compelling and easy-to-read.
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Write guest posts on travel blogs or start a travel column in a print publication. Choose topics that are relevant to your tourism offerings, so that they will attract people who have an interest in your locations or types of trips. Place your name and a link to your website in the signature or bio that accompanies each post or article. By establishing yourself as an expert and providing valuable content, you can make your tourism business more attractive.
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Speak to the needs and preferences of customers. Work with shifts in the economy and market to refine your marketing message. In tough economic times, focus on the affordability of your trips; if you are marketing to an environmentally conscious group of travelers, explain your eco-friendly practices and vendors.
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Market directly to customers. If your tourism business focuses on day travelers or people who are already in your locations, use direct marketing. Hire people to hand out flyers advertising day trips or tours, drop brochures in hostels and hotels or set up a large sign directing customers to your office. By getting your name in front of people when they are looking for things to do, you can capture customers immediately


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