Careers: Business/Multimedia


How can a company use multimedia today?

A company can use multimedia to present powerpoints with image, audio and video add ons to sell an idea or present findings.

A company can use Artistic imagery to promote a product.

A company can use video imagery to promote a product.

A company can use healthy work audio and video music to enhance work productivity.

A company can use different types of media, together as one, to create a ad or slogan to help benefit the company.
Multimedia, such as mobile marketing, live casting and podcasting, photo, video and file sharing, can spread the word about your company and help build brand awareness in a very unique and powerful way. This particular type of social media also has the ability to go viral quickly.
Here's a look at some of the most effective ways to leverage media, such as photos, podcasts, videos, and other types of mobile marketing.

How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: Sharing Photos With Your Online Community.

Several online communities exist for the purpose of uploading and sharing photos over the Web, and many small businesses have learned to take advantage of these services to market their products. Here are the most common photo sharing marketing strategies.

1. Offer real-time incentives. Twitter's Tweet Photo will automatically enable you to publish photos to your Twitter and Facebook accounts for free via mobile and Web platforms. Who needs 140 characters to describe your business when a picture is worth 1,000 words? Tweet pictures of discounted and new items or offer exclusive incentives.

2. Join like-minded communities. At no cost, Yahoo!-operated Flickr provides a useful platform for photo management and sharing. "The first thing that I tell people is that Flickr is not just a photo storage place," says Matt McGee, independent online marketing consultant of the Tri-Cities, Washington-based, Small Business Search Marketing. "It's a very active community centered around Flickr groups." For example, a pet-lovers group may get a kick out of the clothing and toys created by a boutique pet store.

3. Drive traffic to your website. Pink Cake Box, a gourmet cake shop located in Denville, New Jersey, began using Flickr in 2006 to build brand identity. Co-owner Jesse Heap says that Pink Cake Box's website receives about 300,000 unique users each month, and roughly 10 percent of those visitors are from Flickr, where the company posts photos of interesting or extreme cakes.
How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: Hosting Videos and Webcasting.

Sharing videos over the Web is another great resource for small businesses in establishing a social media presence, particularly because of how many people are tuning in. According to a November 2009 survey released by comScore, a digital marketing research firm headquartered in Reston, Virginia, Google's many video sites accounted for 12.2 billion videos viewed that month, including YouTube, which accounted for nearly 99 percent of the total.

Webcasting is essentially broadcasting a video or media file over the Internet using streaming media technology, which can be distributed to many simultaneous viewers at once. Done the right way, webcasts, also called video podcasts, vblogs, videocasting or Web shows, can be effective promotional tools.
Shooting a video for YouTube or starting a more elaborate webcast essentially takes four basic ingredients: equipment, a theme, an online home and marketing.

1. The equipment. Very small businesses can buy a webcam or camcorder, wireless microphone and simple video editing equipment such as Sony's Vegas Movie Studio or Final Cut Pro 7. However, a webcam limits you to filming yourself sitting in front of a computer, and that's not very exciting, says Peter Brusso, an Anaheim, California, podcasting producer and technology marketing consultant. Instead, invest in a camcorder, preferably a "three-chip" camera that uses three computer chips to separate colors, which results in a higher quality picture, Brusso says.

2. Hire someone. If you have a bigger budget, hire a professional.

3. The show. You could have the best-looking video around, but it wouldn't matter if you didn't do something that was interesting and consistent, says's Kaplan. For webcasts, stick to a regular broadcast schedule, whether that's once a day, week or month. And keep shows short.

4. Hosting and marketing. Once you've got a video in the can, upload it for free on YouTube where it can be viewed by anyone. Webcasts can also be uploaded to free or paid hosting sites such as, iTunes or Libsyn. Where a podcast is hosted isn't as important as spreading the word that it's there.
How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: 4 Good Reasons to Go Through the Trouble of Creating a Video.

1. Show how to use your product. With a slogan as simple as "Broadcast Yourself," many YouTube users are doing just that, especially when it comes to showing how their products or services can be used.

2. Extend your client base. In December 2007, John Tuggle, a slide and blues guitar instructor based in Decatur, Georgia, began posting videos on YouTube teaching people how to play guitar because he wasn't generating enough interest in his hometown. By February 2008, interest in his lessens grew so much that he created

3. Entertain your customers. It is quite easy to post a video simply for visitors' enjoyment. For instance, Vimeo, a video hosting site that aims to be a "community of creative people who are passionate about sharing the videos they make," features a 'Videos we like' tab. For a small business owner, posting a video for entertainment purposes stands to generate many views, which in turn may spark interest in the company and possibly lead to the purchase of products or services.

4. Provide a unique service. LiveCast, with headquarters in Vancouver, Canada, enables live video streaming directly from a cell phone, mobile Internet device, or Mac or PC, to anyone connected to the Web.
How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: Podcasting

Podcasts have become such a popular marketing tool for sole proprietors and small businesses that a small army of professional producers is out there waiting to help. Here are 9 essential steps a company needs to get started:

1. Do some homework. The best way to learn about podcasting is to listen to podcasts, says Peter Brusso, an Anaheim, California, podcasting producer and technology marketing consultant.

2. Decide on a topic. Podcasts could focus on a company's products or services, an industry or on management or professional issues. Whatever the topic, make sure it's related to a company's business in some way.
3. Gather your tools. Producing a podcast requires:
A microphone, digital audio recorder or USB headset to record podcast episodes
Computer with sound card and high-speed Internet connection
Audio recording and editing software, either licensed software or free open-source programs such as Audacity.

4. Be natural. When it's time to record a podcast, organize talking points, but don't use a script. "People don't like being sold. The more from the heart the better," Brusso says.

5. Build a backlog. Before going live, build up a catalog of a dozen or more episodes. Coming up with ideas is easy, Brusso says. They can spring from talking to customers, going to conventions, reading trade magazines, or following current events.

6. Be consistent. Length, professional quality, and subject matter of a company's podcast are important but not as much as on-air consistency. Whether it's once a day, once a week or once a month, pick a schedule and stick to it. Podcasts are like radio or TV shows: audiences expect a schedule. Disappoint them and they might not come around again, Brusso says.

7. Not a D-I-Y type? Hire a pro. Professional producers can handle the technical aspects of starting or creating a podcast.
8. Find your podcast a home. Companies can physically host a podcast anywhere, including with the service they use for their website. What really matters is getting the word out that it's there.

9. Forget about making money, at least not directly. Some podcasts collect revenue from advertising that podcast directories put on their sites. But that shouldn't be why a company does it. Podcasts should be part of a company's overall marketing strategy, Brusso says. "To get yourself known, you have to blog, optimize your Website for search engines and podcast," he says. "If you do all three the results are phenomenal."

How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: Mobile Marketing

There are 4.1 billion cellular connections worldwide, and with the prevalence of smart phones, the concept of browsing the Web from a mobile phone has gone mainstream. Consider this: Mobile phone carriers are sitting atop a trove of data not just your name, address, and, of course, phone number but also credit card information, who your friends are, and where you're located at this very moment. Even with privacy regulations, more of this information will become available to marketers as phones are used more like little PCs, creating opportunities for highly targeted ads and other marketing breakthroughs.

Here's what you need to know to get started.

How exactly do I advertise on a mobile phone? The most common type of mobile ad is a display ad served on a Web page called up on a cell phone's screen. The ads are created for the site's mobile format and may not be the same as the ads you would see if you were browsing the site on a PC.

How do I buy mobile ads? Most advertisers work with mobile-ad networks, which bring together advertisers and websites that are frequently viewed by phone. Some of the larger players, which are owned by the likes of Google (AdMob), AOL (Third Screen Media) and Apple (Quattro Wireless), will act as full-service marketing shops. They handle the entire process, including technology, the creative content of mobile ads, and the ads' placement.

What do mobile ads cost? The cost of mobile ads varies due to the different types of ads, and different cell phone platforms.

What about text messaging? One option is to buy or rent a short code, a five- or six-digit phone number from which you can send and receive text messages. One common way to use a short code is to publish it on a billboard or in a print ad ("Text 51234 for more information") that encourages customers to enter a contest or participate in a poll.

How do I go after my best customers on a mobile phone? Google has expanded into the mobile world in several ways. Now, it allows companies to buy display ads ads related to content on the mobile Web.

How to Use Multimedia For Business Marketing: 3 Tips for Making Your Mobile Campaign Successful

1. Determine your goals. Who is your target audience? How will they benefit from your message? Do you hope to generate revenue, generate interest, generate traffic to your website, or all three? Define your goals and set benchmarks for what a successful campaign would look like.

2. Choose your message. Your message should have a clear call to action.

3. Pair your mobile marketing campaign with other social media. When Casa Del Mar, a luxury beach hotel located in Santa Monica, California, wanted to get the word out about drink specials, they doubled up on social media marketing. The hotel posted messages on Twitter and Facebook saying, "Text CASA to 21534 and enjoy unlimited champagne or Bloodys. FREE." Customers who texted received videos of the weekend brunch spread on their phone and received the beverage of their choice at the hotel. The end result was highly viral, with 250 redemptions.
Photo Sharing

Twitter's TweetPhoto will automatically enable you to publish photos to your Twitter and Facebook accounts for free via mobile and Web platforms.

Yahoo!-operated Flickr provides a useful platform for photo management and sharing.

Photobucket is a free image hosting site that enables visitors to share photos, videos and slideshows. Plus, you can search through their archives for inspirational or fun photos for your own viewing pleasure.

TinyPic is another image hosting site that allows you to share photos and videos for no cost at all. You can easily upload, link, and share your images and videos on MySpace, eBay, blogs, message boards, and a number of other Web-based platforms.

Snapfish provides unlimited free photo storage and photo sharing, as well. They also offer a feature called 'Snapshow,' which works as a free multimedia slideshow that brings your photos to life, with customized themes, songs and titles.

Shutterfly is an online photo sharing platform that also allows you to share sites, albums and projects for free.

Hosting Videos and Webcasting
With the tagline "Broadcast Yourself," YouTube allows users to post video, both ametuer and professional, for anyone to view.'s Learning Center links to information about podcasting, equipment, production tips and more.

Yahoo's video blogging list is a message board where people interested in video podcasting post questions and trade information.

iTunes Store, an online digital media store operated by Apple, is the No. 1 music vendor in the United States, however it also provides video and podcast downloads as well.
RSS Player Podcast Client for the iPhone and iPod Touch is a unique iPhone app that lets you subscribe to to your favorite podcasts, manage them, and listen to them in a unique and well designed format for the iPhone with tons of cool features.
Libsyn is a full-featured service tailored specifically for media self-publishing and podcasting. Price is based on usage, changing monthly if needed. is the best site to find all your Podcasts, podcast feeds, podcast definitions, podcast software and best podcast directory.
Podcast411 offers the 411 on podcasts, podcasters and podcasting. It's the place to learn to podcast. They offer how to's on podcasting, a directory of podcasts, and a directory of podcasts.
On Podanza you'll find all the best audio podcasts and video podcasts. You can browse the podcast directory or search for your favorite podcast.
TalkShoe is a service that enables anyone to easily create, join, or listen to live interactive discussions, conversations, podcasts and audioblogs.
PodcastFAQ is a website committed to providing everything you need to know about podcasting, from podcast creators and consumers to businesses.

Mobile Marketing
Google (AdMob), AOL (Third Screen Media) and Apple (Quattro Wireless) will act as full-service marketing shops by handling the entire process, including technology, the creative content of mobile ads, and the ads' placement.
Cellit Mobile Marketing and Movo sell short codes for texting campaigns.
Types of Multimedia Presentations:-
Below is an overview of some of the formats for multimedia presentations.

Web Pages:-
Web pages become multimedia resources and presentations when they are designed with media other than static images and text such as audio, video, animation and virtual reality.

Hypermedia is a combination of the words hypertext and multimedia. Hypertext is often referred to as the text on a web page which may include graphics, sound animation and video as well. Navigation of hypertext is designed to be nonlinear allowing the viewer to jump between segments as they choose.

Slide Presentations:-
Teacher or student slide presentations can done using a variety of software such as PowerPoint, AppleWorks Presentation, Corel Presentations 8.0 and KidPix Slide Show. Although the capabilities of the programs vary, the purpose of the slide show format is to display work such as student or teacher research, ideas, information outlines or unit material. Test, chats, graphs, audio, text animation, live hyperlinks and video clips can be added to many of the presentation software programs to create multimedia presentations. Slide show presentations can be viewed by a group at the computer or by a class by connecting the computer to a digital projector.

Video presentations can provide background information in a unit of study for all learners as well as provide a resource for independent learning. Documentary videos help students gain insight to historical events, other cultures and human identities. Videos can also provide the window to the remote - outer space, the inaccessible - the human heart, and the delicate - a bee pollinating a flower.

Virtual Reality:-
Virtual reality is the technology that allows us to explore from a computer a 3 dimensional space. Using a digital camera and photo-stitch software, teachers and students can create their own virtual reality tours for use in a variety of curriculum areas. Once created, the virtual tours can be shared with other classes and schools.

With the advancement of technology many applications are evident for the multimedia
technology. The advancement of technology have opened up newer fields for the  application development. One such fields which is having tremendous potential and
falls under the broad per view of multimedia is virtual reality, may be the tool of
tomorrow. Today, virtual reality is primarily used in applications in entertainment
industry but is going to be very useful tool for performing simulative, remote control
applications. Virtual reality will have a tremendous impact on on-job training sector.
In the following sections we will present a broad categorisation of multimedia

The entertainment industry has used this technology the most to create real life like games. Several developers have used graphics, sound, animation of multimedia to
create variety of games. The special technologies such as virtual reality have made
these game just like experiences of real life. Our such example is flight simulator
which creates a real-life imaging.
Many multimedia games are now available on computers. The children can enjoy
these experiences, for example, they can drive cars of different variety, fly aircraft,
play any musical instrument, play golf etc.

Edutainment is nothing but educational entertainment. Many computer games with focus on education are now available. A simple example, in this case is an educational
game which plays various rhymes for little kids. In addition to playing rhymes, the child can paint the pictures, increase reduce size of various objects etc. Similarly
many other edutainment packages which provide a lot of detailed information to kids are available. Microsoft has produced many such CD- based multimedia such as
Sierra, Knowledge Adventure etc. which in addition to play provide some sort of
learning component. The latest in this series is a package which teaches about the
computer using games playing.

Business Communications
Multimedia is a very powerful tool for enhancing the quality of business communications. The business communications such as employee related communications, product promotions, customer information and reports for investors
can be presented in multimedia form. All these business communications are required to be structured such that a formal level of content structure exist in the

Applications of Multimedia
Other common business application involving multimedia requires access to database
of multimedia information about a company. The multimedia technology of today can easily support this application as natural language enquiry systems do exist for
making queries.

2.2.4 Knowledge Transfer
This kind of application involve transmission of a piece of information with the maximum impact, that is, the transfer of information in such a fashion that it facilitates the retention. This application is meant for academia and business both.
In academies, the knowledge transfer is used as the building block, whereas, in business it is the effective transfer of information which might be essential for the
survival of a business. Multimedia based teaching is gaining momentum and will become a powerful teaching aid in the near future. Multimedia is one of the best ways
to provide short term training to the workers in a business house. It gives lot of flexibility in providing training.

Public Access
Public Access is an area of application where many multimedia applications will soon be available. One such application may be the tourist information system, where a
person who wants to go for a sight seeing trip may have the glimpse of places he has selected for visiting. Using Multimedia. many such applications may he developed
providing a repository of information. For example, for a very simple public information, that is, the Railway Time table enquiry, a multimedia based system may
not only display the trains and time but also the route map of the destination from the source you have desired.
In the subsequent sections we will discuss many applications of multimedia technology in several important areas.

The publishing industry can be classified according to the market it caters for. One of the classification is based on the information which is presented in published text, for
example; a publication may be for reference purposes or archival purposes or tutorials.
It can also be grouped on the basis of the community for which a particular publication is meant, such as, for the family, or the school children or professional
persons or the academics. The publication media for all above categories, traditionally, was printed texts.
But today the publishing industry has changed drastically because of availability of Multimedia. The publications which are meant for family such as newspapers, family
magazines etc. are readily available on-line, that is in multimedia form giving real life experiences. For example, the on-line- news clippings are not only read but can also
be experienced by seeing the video film associated with it. Example in this category
are: Microsoft Multimedia. The life and composition of Bethovan etc. where a rich mix of sound, visuals and movies are provided for publication.
The publishing meant for children has changed tremendously with the advent of multimedia. Today many encyclopedia and books providing a sort of edutainment are
available. The advantage of using multimedia on these books are evident from the type of media rich experiences these CD-ROM based product provide. For example,
an atlas encyclopedia may not only allow you to pinpoint the location of Delhi in  India but also shows you a Road map of Delhi showing several historical sites. A
dictionary meant for children not only shows the meaning of the words but can also show its characteristics for example a tiger may be defined as a wild animal and along
with that a movie in which tiger is shown in his natural habitat can be shown. Thus this kind of media rich experiences are much more entertaining and provide better
learning environment for children.
In fact, we believe that for increasing general awareness of a child, multimedia is the best tool available to us today. However, still the reading habits, listening habits,
paying ,attention etc. are the capabilities on which the education will rely upon.
For professionals, today many a products are available in the market. For example, how to tackle many management oriented issues, can be presented in multimedia
form. Professionals, however, can use multimedia technology for on-line video-
conferencing. on-line document editing etc. functions.
As far as academics are concerned multimedia publishing is a boon. Today, if a researcher wants to refer to a conference proceedings all he has to do is buy a CD
produced for it. This CD normally contains abstracts, paper presentations, reports presentation etc. The other advantage an Academician gets by having such a detail on
CD is that his search through the material can be faster, as in general, several indexes
are being provided in the CDs. Thus, Multimedia publishing has a great potential and
will be the technology which has tremendous potential.
The multimedia technology also supports the process of collaborative development of
documents for printing, thus, makes process of publishing faster and better.

The advances of computing, communication and creation of relevant standards have
lead to the beginning of an era where you will be provided with the multimedia
facilities at home. May be in the form of an Interactive T.V.
These services may include:
Basic Television Services
Interactive entertainment
Digital Audio
Video on demand
Home shopping
Financial transactions
Interactive single and multiuser games
Digital multimedia libraries
Electronic versions of newspapers, magazines etc.
Cable TV and telephone companies are the main infrastructure providers for these facilities. The networking technology along with the improved compiling and
compression technologies will soon be delivering interactive services profitably. The entertainment cable, telephone, companies are trying to design wide variety of such
multimedia services.
Today PCs are the tool that promote collaboration. They are essential to any multimedia workstations. Many high speed networks are in place that allow
multimedia conferencing, or electronic conferencing. Today, we have to depend on  our telephone to link us with others, whether it is a phone call or a group audio
conference. However, tomorrow it will be PCs that link us with others. A PC-based multimedia conference allow us to exchange audio, text, image, and even video
information. The PC will also facilitate group development of documents and other information products. Let us discuss more about these concepts in greater details.

Multimedia can be used in many applications in a business. In this section we will focus on the facilities which might change the outlook of the whole business.
The Global Team
The multimedia technology along with communication technology has opened the door for formation of global work groups. Today, the team members may be working
anywhere, and can work for various companies. These team member may:
be in different cities or countries,
speak different languages.
Thus, the work place will become global. If such is the future of a business then the
multimedia network should support the following facilities:

Voice Mail
Voice mail is a tool which communication voice over a line. A recorded voice is better than having no voice. A voice mail based system is not person dependent. The
voice mail however, has the obvious limitation that it can handle only audio information, however audio information is sufficient for quick and simple exchange of
Please note that voice mail is time-and location-independent. However, a voice mail system is non- interactive, that is, if you want to get a reply then you have to wait,
however, you can send and receive voice mail quickly.

Electronic Mail
Electronic mail is preferred than the voice mail to exchange information for the cases
which require wider distribution of complex information. In general the written word leaves less room for misinterpretation. In addition the word files are easier to store and
The future electronic mail software must handle voice and video, FAX, and graphic information. In addition the user interface for e-mail should be very easy. Electronic
mail is also time-and location- independent, however it is non-interactive.

Multimedia based FAX
FAX, in general, is better accepted than electronic mail because:
it can be used to send detailed information
is easier to use
handles graphic information
provides a printed copy of information.

FAX provides a non-interactive interface to the user. Today's multimedia PCs are equipped with FAX-modem cards and the FAX message gets stored electronically in
these machines. On development of newer multimedia based e-mail, the distinction will gradually become blurred and will gradually fade out.

Office Needs
The activities in an office such as meetings, group discussions, trainings are some areas where we need the concepts such as brainstorming, sharing of idea, problem
solving etc. For real-time meetings which involve geographically disperse group of
people we can avail the choices as:
Audio conferencing
Video conferencing, or
Document conferencing.

Audio Conferencing
This technology allows 'out-of-town' people to participate in a formal meeting. This technology can also be used by a group of people to meet frequently whatsoever is the
physical distance among them. Audio conferencing is an effective means of communication for reporting about a project status. It can be used to solve problems
quickly. One of the disadvantage of audio conferencing is that such conferences are restricted to only voice, so this conference can be preceded by sending email of
documents that are to be used during the conference. The second disadvantage is that the person who is not proficient in spoken words cannot participate well in such

Audio conferencing technology was first available only in the conference room but is now available on desktop machines.

Video Conferencing
Video conferencing is being used successfully by several organisations abroad. Video conferencing resembles an office meeting, thus, require setting of time, preparing
rooms and place, agenda etc. However the biggest drawback is the cost of the equipment.
Video conferencing brings people together naturally and tries to simulate a real life meeting environment. Today video conferencing has been brought to the computer
however, it is not easy to use as the participant has to continuously look at the camera
on the top of his machine.

Document Conferencing
Document conferencing also called audio-graphic conferencing technology allows people to meet using their PCs and telephone lines. The telephone lines connect the
participants so they can share audio information and the data they have stored in their PC. In addition, it allows on line editing of a document by several participating people
in the conference. This conferencing technology has been used in the education field.
It extends the boundaries of the classroom and reach out into the community. A document which can be used in the conference may consist of text, graphics, sound or even video clippings.


Pedagogues are useful teaching aids only if they stimulate and motivate the students.
The audio- visual support to a pedagogue can actually help in doing so. A multimedia tutor can provide multiple number of challenges to the student to stimulate his interest
in a topic. The instruction provided by pedagogue have moved beyond providing only
button level control to intelligent simulations, dynamic creation of links, composition
and collaboration and system testing of the user interactions. Let us look into some of the examples of pedagogues:

This is an important area of pedagogy where a student is engaged in situations of
problem solving. Simulations are mainly categorised in two main forms:
Scenarios based simulations
Knowledge based simulations.
Scenario based simulations, which are multimedia based use video, graphics and sound to engage the student in a particular problem situation. However, these scenario
based tutors have limited answers and suggestions to offer.
Knowledge based simulations are more intelligent as far as behaviour is concerned and are adaptive to student needs, however, are difficult to design. Let us discuss
about some good examples in this area.

The Cardiac Tutor
This tutor has been developed by Chus Eliot, at the University of Massachusetts, Computer Science Department. It is a knowledge based simulation which teaches the
student about the cardiac resuscitation. The knowledge about cardiac resuscitation was
collected iteratively from various experts in the area. This tutor has been designed to
present a graphical view of an emergency patient. The goal for the student is to save
the patient. The tutor also provide clues to the students. These clues can be:
spoken advice
emergency room sounds
graphical indications such as Electro Cardiogram (ECG) trace, blood pressure andvital signs.
Thus, providing a sort of real life operative situations where mistake cost nothing but bad score. This tutor in fact goes to the extent that it provides different levels of
teaching for different kinds of students and assists the learning process dynamically.

Multimedia Composition
A composition created by a student on Multimedia platform require lot many activities to perform. These activities may include aspects like:
creation of text, drawings or digitised pictures.
organisation that is marking and classifying the items.
access of documents which involves searching of patterns, and indexing or
filtering certain types of items.
communication which helps in basically sharing the work and ideas.
The skills required to create and use multimedia will become essential in near future.
Today many platforms are available for the development of multimedia  communications even for an inexperienced students. These developments can be done
either at a standalone stations or through distributed networks.
A well connected multimedia interface allows integration of several media forms for a
particular piece of information. Several media presentations such as text, process
descriptions or graphics etc. about a single topic can be combined.

Multimedia and Explanatory Systems
The multimedia systems also show a very important property that is they adapt their responses to the student needs. Thus, providing explanation to various situations
which have been put for the pedagogue to solve. These types of system will become common place in near future.
In explanatory systems the students who are using it can select the media for displaying information. A typical example, in such a category is the explanation
planner. This system is developed at the University of Massachusetts. This planner
responds to the queries of the students in real time. On the basis of a students query this tutor selects the appropriate text and graphical information. The students may end
up seeing several media form on a topic depending on his queries. It is not the system which only present information but it adapts itself to the needs of a student based on
the question asked by the student.
The advantages of this planner over a normal hypertext based presentations are:
The students can themselves choose the media to display information. Some of
the types of information which is present is animation, text, graphics etc.
A piece of information can be reused for answering different question as the
objects are defined in the forms of a shared base of information.
Capabilities of having natural links still exist.
Another example in this category is the Microcosm system. This system, however, uses different approach. This system provide explicit and implicit links through
hypertext. These links are maintained in Database which is separate from the document. Thus, in this database newer links for a user can be defined and
maintained. In this system explicit links are used for defining relationships between two multimedia objects. Implicit links are utilised for creation of run time links which
result in presentation of information in a way desired by the user.

Technological Challenge for Developers
Today, if we want to use the potential of multimedia technology and wants to use it in day to day life of the students then we have to deal with the following challenges:
We have to move to a knowledge based multimedia systems which will customisethe presentations based on the curriculum or student or the situation they are
responding to.
In future, there will have to be trends of having network based multimediasystems which will allow an application to reside at several sites. The people
making these sites will be responsible for updating the information relating to the
field of information they are holding. Thus, having collaboration of work. The concept is further discussed in the next section.
More advanced authoring tools need to be developed which provide easy
representation for implementing thinking pedagogues.

The process of learning and motivation for learning are influenced by a variety of
factors, which are not necessarily accessible to analysis. However, these factors are in
the semiconscious or subconscious area of the human cognition. One of the essential
component of the learning process is social interaction. The informal peer learning is
as important as formal teaching.
Collaboration and Multimedia Learning: Benefits and Pitfalls
Today, multimedia learning materials are available on various platforms. Just like
multimedia a collaborative learning environment integrates text, graphs, audio and
video. However, the traditional CBT systems operate in standalone mode that is user
interactivity is restricted to the CBT only, whereas the possibility to interact with
instructors and peers is offered by collaboration using multimedia communication.
Thus, by using a communication network and collaborative learning in groups is possible.

The main elements of such kind of environment of learning are:
Collaboration: The traditional CBTs require the student to work in self study mode.
But work without a tutor may be ineffective. Thus, instead of offering courses on CD-
ROM or video-tape a new learning environment is needed which focuses on bringing
several learners together for better attainment of learning goal. Communication should be possible in any direction, learners can ask their tutors or talk to other learners.
Distance Cooperation: The collaboration of such kind have no geographical boundaries. The only mean required is the availability of telecommunication facility.
The availability of telecommunication facility is a must for any collaborative environment.
Deferred or Real Time Communication: This system will provide possibility to communicate with the colleagues and tutors in a time frame which is not immediate.
For example, a learner may be allowed to answer a question at a later time i.e. not on the spot. A new type of learning process may take place with benefits for some
learning situations. Thus, students can learn in a group situation not in real time but later, thus, allowing more contemplation and depth.

Distributed Data: Learning data, such as learning material, videos, graphics, text files etc. are no longer needed to be stored on the local computer, but can be
distributed over the network. All participants may share the same information, which
can be modified at a common place. However, a student should not be allowed to modify the data. Thus, proper data security measures need to be encorporated for such
Multimedia Interface: A usual way to communicate is to talk to and see our communication partner. This natural way of interfacing may be provided by
multimedia environment using audio and video communication technology.

The basic properties of multimedia that is delivery through multiple media with the use of Communication technology make us realise that this application is a
distributed, collaborative application. Since a medical consultation system is extremely critical as decision taken by doctors are life critical, therefore, the data
manipulations and user interaction in such a system are extremely broad and quite demanding.
This application is an distributed multimedia based project which is being developed at University of Pittsburgh medical centre. At present this system is used at seven
hospitals and many diagnostic and research laboratories. Mednet provides the
following services:
A real-time monitoring and multiparty consultation
Collaboration during brain surgery.
The intra-operative monitoring places a real-time control about the condition of the
patient. Mednet is different from the other picture taking teleconferencing systems as
it provide real time monitoring and collaboration.
The term "collaboration" is one of the commonly used term in multimedia applications today. The verbal meaning of this word is the actual meaning in the
context of multimedia, that is collectively doing a particular work but for this collaborative work physical presence may not be required. How can it be achieved by
Mednet as in most of the surgeries the anesthesiologist, the surgeon and other
supporting staff have to be present, however, the consulting neurophysiologist (who are normally difficult to find) whose presence is not a necessity may remotely monitor
the case along with few other cases. He can see and listen the responses of the monitoring equipments on his screen and in case of any problem that is, when the
nervous system of a patient is being damaged, informs the surgeon who is performing the surgery.
Thus, with the limited expertise available a lot of activities can be performed. However, the cost effectiveness of such a system cannot be ignored.

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