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Discuss some trends in IT development

information technology

the development, implementation, and maintenance of computer hardware and software systems to organize and communicate information electronically.

In the broadest sense, information technology refers to both the hardware and software that are used to store, retrieve, and manipulate information. At the lowest level you have the servers with an operating system. Installed on these servers are things like database and web serving software. The servers are connected to each other and to users via a network infrastructure. And the users accessing these servers have their own hardware, operating system, and software tools.

THERE  is  the   increasing importance of information technology as the organized  industries undergo divestiture, deregulation, convergence, and globalization. In today's competitive environment, organizations  increasingly focus on customer retention, cost reduction and competitive positioning. Decision-making, from system planning to operations and maintenance, is no longer just about finding the most economical solution to meet business criteria. It also involves determining customer expectations and finding the best approach to meet these expectations. Many companies  have realized the benefits from using real-time technologies, such as those involving supervisory control and data acquisition  and distribution automation systems. These systems have historically improved reliability, reduced operating and capital costs, and have provided invaluable data for system planning, design and operations. The organization  will continue to derive these benefits as well as customer satisfaction and retention by more fully integrating their information and analysis systems. Properly managing and utilizing information will enable the  companies of the future to be more competitive

In the world of globalization, Information system is such where data are collected, classified and put into process interpreting the result thereon in order to provide an integrated series of information for further communicating and analyzing. In a progressively more spirited worldwide atmosphere, Information System plays the role as ‘enabler and facilitator’, which endows with tactical values to the officialdom and considerable step up to the excellence of administration. ‘An Information System is a particular type of work system that uses information technology to detain, put on the air, store, retrieve, manipulate or display information, thereby partisan one or more other work structure’. In totting up to taking sides assessment making, co-ordination and control, information systems may also help managers and workers investigate problems, envisage complex subjects and generate new merchandise or services.

Work systems and the information systems that support typically undergo at least four phases: a) initiation, the process of defining the need to change an existing work system b) development, the process of acquiring and configuring/installing the necessary hardware, software and other resources c) implementation, the process of making new system operational in the organisation, and d) Operation and maintenance, the process concerned with the operation of the system, correcting any problems that may arise and ensuring that the system is delivering the anticipating benefits. The management of these processes can be achieved and controlled using a series of techniques and management tools which, collectively, tend to be known as Structured Methodologies.



-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  FOR  Identifying strategic shifts and positioning  WITH   clients in anticipation of several possible outcomes – scenario planning --is a core part of our strategic and tactical planning.

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO  SEE  Changes in market conditions, technical advances, and economic issues will all affect THE  INDUSTRY /  BUSINESS  in the future.
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  TO   find the most effective marketing strategies in order to succeed in these challenging times.
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  THAT  enables  to provide  valuable understanding of the opportunities, challenges, potential pitfalls and market implications

-PROVIDE  INFORMATION  WHICH   helps organizations realize the most value from their  assets.

portfolio management, remarketing assistance, sale and lease negotiations, asset sourcing and acquisition, appraisal and valuation,  auditS and management and expert testimony.
-PROVIDE  THE  RIGHT INFORMATION for  a clear and disciplined approach to
financial planning is vital to ensure success.
-PROVIDE  INFORMATION   FOR the execution of effective business planning and sound management usually defines these differences in profitability.
-PROVIDE   INFORMATION  TO   analyze and prioritize the  BUSINESS  drivers to help to  achieve a superior competitive position. Vital to this process is an understanding of the economic advantages of scale and scope.
-PROVIDES   INFORMATION  FOR  Operational excellence results in the attainment of world-class quality and productivity in the delivery of services to customers
-PROVIDES  INFORMATION  to develop a clear understanding of their operating practices and associated costs, particularly relative to competitors.
When  running a  BUSINESS, the right information systems can have a critical impact operating costs, operating effectiveness, and customer satisfaction.
in terms  of  
-ability  to  collect  qualtitative informations
-ability  to collect  quantitative informations
-ability  to  handle wide range of  functionalities
-ability  to store
-ability  to track
-ability  to  monitor
-ability  to track variances
-ability  to  provide  trends
etc etc.


The information  can be  used  for   various  purposes,

-strategic planning
-delivering increased  productivity
-reducing  service cycles
-reducing  product development  cycles
-reducing  marketing life cycles
-increasing  the  understanding  of  customers' needs
-facilitating business and  process re-engineering.
INFORMATION    can  also  be used across the  organization  as an  information
utility  to

-support  policy making
-meet  regulatory  and  legislative requirements
-support  research  and  development
-support  consistent and  rapid  decision  making
-enable  effective  and efficient  utilization  of resources
-provide evidence of  business transactions
-identify  and  manage  risks
-evaluate  and document quality, performance and achievements.
The  availability  of  information is  fundamental  to  the  decision making
process. Decisions  are  made within the organization at
The  information  needs and decision making  activities  of the  
various  levels of  management

Strategic business  direction

-information  for  strategically positioning  the  organization
-competitive  analysis and  performance evaluation,
-strategic  planning and policy,
-external factors that  influence  the  direction

Organizational and operational functions

-information  for  coordination  of  work units
-information  for  delivery  programmes
-evaluation  of  resources usage
-budget control
-problem  solving
-operational  planning

Programme  management within units

-information  for  implementing programmes
-information  for  managing   programmes
-management   of  resources usage
-project scheduling
-problem  solving
-operational  planning

Activity management

-information for  routine  decision  making
-information  for  problem solving
-information  for  service delivery

The  management  oriented  support  systems   provide support
to  various  levels  of  management.

Executive  Information  Systems  allow  executives to see where  a
problem  or  opportunity  exists.

Decision  Support  Systems are  used  by  mid-level management  
to support  the  solution  of  problems that  require judgement
by  the  problem solver.

Line  Managers   use Management  Reporting Systems  for  
routine operational  information.

These  include

-Accounting  Information  Systems

-Marketing  Information  Systems

-Enterprise  Information  Systems

-Decision  Support  Information  Systems

-Executive    Information  Systems

-Quality  Management   Information  Systems

-Manufacturing   Information  Systems

-Financial   Information  Systems

-Human resource   Information  Systems


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