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Question
Sir,
Pl help to answer the following,



1)   a) Explain the important role of Sales and Distribution in the exchange process with   
   suitable examples.
b) What is Personal Selling? Critically evaluate the growing importance of personal
    selling in the present market environment.

2)   a) Discuss the importance of selling skills in personal selling function.
b) Suggest suitable presentation strategy in the following situations.
  i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people
ii) Presenting your self the suitability for a senior sales position for the top    
   management of an MNC.

3)   a) What are the various methods or approaches that a sales manager can manage his sales     
         team? Discuss with suitable examples.
b)   Why recruitment and selection of sales personnel for an engineering/capital goods company assumes a challenge for a Human Resource Manager? Discuss by making appropriate assumptions.

4)   a) Planning and controlling functions are key to every   successful  sales department in an
   organization.  Explain in detail the role and relevance of there functions by picking a
   suitable example of your choice.
b) The  key consideration in territory management are forecasting sales and
   assigning sales quotas to the sales force. Discuss with a suitable example.

Answer
HERE  IS  SOME  SOME  USEFUL MATERIAL.
SOME  ANSWERS  HELD  BACK  DUE TO  SPACE CONSTRAINT.
PLEASE  FORWARD  THESE  BALANCE  QUESTIONS  TO  MY  EMAIL  ID   
leolingham2000@gmail.com.
I  will send  the balance  asap.
Regards
LEO  LINGHAM
==========================================










1.a) Explain the important role of Sales and Distribution in the exchange process with   
   suitable examples.
Marketing role in business
Marketing is perhaps the most important activity in a business because it has a direct effect on profitability and sales. Larger businesses will dedicate specific staff and departments for the purpose of marketing.
It is important to realise that marketing cannot be carried out in isolation from the rest of the business. For example:
The marketing section of a business needs to work closely with operations, research and development, finance and human resources to check their plans are possible.
Operations will need to use sales forecasts produced by the marketing department to plan their production schedules.
Sales forecasts will also be an important part of the budgets produced by the finance department, as well as the deployment of labour for the human resources department.
A research and development department will need to work very closely with the marketing department to understand the needs of the customers and to test outputs of the R&D section.
What  is  Marketing ?

It  is  a  process  by  which  

-one  identifies  the  needs and wants  of  the  people.
-one determines  and  creates a  product/service to meet  the  needs and  wants. [PRODUCT]
-one determines  a way  of  taking the  product/service to the market place. [PLACE]
-one determines the  way of  communicating the product  to the  market  place. [PROMOTIONS]
-one determines the value for the product.[PRICE].
-one determines  the  people, who have  needs/ wants. [PEOPLE]
and then  creating a  transaction for exchanging the product for   a  value. and  thus  creating a  satisfaction to the buyer's needs/wants.

TERMS  to  understand.
1.Product/Service  means  a  product or service or idea to satisfy the  people's  needs /  wants.
2.Needs  mean  when  a  person feels deprived of something.
3.Wants  mean  when a  person's  need  is  formed / shaped by  personality, culture, and  knowledge.
4.Value  means  the  benefits  that the  customer  gains from owning  and  using the  product  and  the  cost  of  the product.
5.Satisfaction  means  the extent  to  which  a  product's
  perceived  performance  matches  a  buyer's expectation.
6.Exchange means the  act of obtaining a needed/ wanted
  object  by  offering  something  in  return.
7.Transactions  mean a  trade  off  between  a  buyer / a seller that  involves  an  exchange  at  agreed  conditions.

Marketing is based on identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer needs effectively and profitably.
It encompasses
- market research,
-product planning / development ,
-product  pricing,
-product  marketing
-SALES  *****************************
-promotion,
-distribution, ************************
-customer care,
-BRANDING
-merchandising
-retailing
-website  marketing
and much more.
===========================================
ROLE  OF  (Sales and Distribution)
ROLE  OF  SALES /DISTRIBUTION  in the marketing model refers to how your product or service reaches the customer. It involves not only how you make the sale, but how your distribution system. There are many factors to consider in sales and distribution. You need a well-thought-out plan for conducting the sale and distributing (delivering) your product to the customer. Here are some questions to consider:
•   Is your sales approach highly persuasive and emotional? Or, is it informational and low-keyed?
•   What is the average length of the sales cycle?
•   How many products can you produce in what time frame?
•   How many products can you store, or what is your inventory capacity? Use sales forecasts to decide what your inventory levels should be in order to meet customer demands.
•   How often will you "turn" or replenish your inventory? How does this compare with the standards in your industry?
•   What are the cyclical fluctuations or seasonal changes that affect the demand for or production of your products? For example, if you produce Christmas decorations, how will you manage peak production and sales periods as well as slow periods?
•   Describe your distribution channel. In other words, how will your products be delivered or distributed to the customers?
For relatively small sales, such as selling your paintings through a local gallery, the distribution method is such a routine part of the sales contact that it requires only a small amount of thought and description. (In this scenario, the painting is displayed and stored at the gallery, the sales approach is probably low-pressure and informational, and the painting is given to the customer at the time of the sale.) At other times, such as when an order is taken over the Internet and the product is mailed, more planning and description of the entire approach is in order.
Product Availability
At first glance, it may seem like the more convenient and available your product is, the better. This isn't always true, however. Often, it's better to be more selective, even exclusive, about sales locations for your product. Take every opportunity to think strategically.
Wide Availability      Limited Availability
Intensive Distribution
Use all suitable distribution channels. Example: Brand name chewing gum is available at a wide variety of retail outlets.    Selective Distribution
Use channels meeting certain criteria only. Example: Mont Blanc pens are sold only in upscale retail stores.    Exclusive Distribution
Retailer or channel is granted exclusive rights. Example: Body Shop products are available only in their stores or from their catalogs.


SELLING  PROCESS

The selling process has six key steps. Virtually every sales interaction will follow these steps, whether it lasts several minutes or several months:
1.   Prospecting
2.   Initial Contact
3.   Sales Presentation
4.   Handling Objections
5.   Closing the Sale
6.   Follow-Up and Service after the Sale
As you develop a sales process that is right for you and your business, here are some other pointers to keep in mind:
•   Continuously improve your sales skills, learn from others and stay open to new ideas.
•   Be sincere about your desire to help the prospect. Making the sale should be your secondary objective. This attitude will come through in every encounter and will help you build long-term relationships.
•   Contribute more than just your product. Provide industry news updates, creative ideas, and business advice as part of the service you offer.
•   Be direct with your communication. Beating around the bush only frustrates people. Answer all questions. Never patronize.
•   Enclose your business card with every letter and note.
•   Thank people who refer prospects to you. If the referral results in business, send a small, business-related thank-you gift also.
•   Never lie. Don't badmouth the competition or say negative things about their clients. Don't gossip.
•   Don't overbook yourself so much that you don't have time to listen and be available to your customer for their questions and comments.
==========
Distribution refers to how you deliver your product to the customer. If you are in a service business, it may be the way you deliver yourself to the customer to perform the service. Some of the primary categories of sales and distribution channels are named below. You may use one, more than one or various combinations of sales and distribution methods. Additionally, different products from the same company may require different methods.
•   Direct Sales
Your company sells directly to the customer or end user of the product. There is no agent between your company and the customer. Providing financial planning services to individuals is an example of direct sales. Catalog sales or sales over the Internet are also examples of this method.
•   Indirect Sales: Retail
Your company sells to a retailer whose salespeople then sell to the customer. Selling organically grown herbs to a local grocery store is an example of indirect sales.
•   Indirect Sales: Wholesale
Your company sells to a wholesaler or agent who sells products to retailers. The wholesaler most likely represents several companies. (It's more efficient for the retailer to have one source for many products instead of dealing with an unwieldy number of individuals.) Selling novelty pet accessories to wholesalers who resell to a variety of pet care stores, animal clinics and other retail outlets is an example of selling to wholesalers or agents. Trade shows and merchandise markets are locations where retailers order your product based on your display and promotion at the show. You can get schedules and names of these shows from trade publications available in most big libraries.
•   Indirect Sales: Multi-level Marketing
You sell both directly to customers and to other sales people you have recruited to sell products.
You determine which interface between your company and the prospective customer is appropriate depending upon your objectives:
What are the characteristics of your target market and how large is the market for this product?    For a high-priced product with a small number of potential buyers, the direct sales approach with plenty of service is probably best. For a low-priced product that appeals to the mass market, like chewing gum, an indirect selling approach is fine as long as it is supported with advertising and effective placements in retail stores so customers can find it easily.
Where are the customers located?    Sales through a local retail outlet may be your best distribution method if you have a large number of customers located in your area. However, a small number of geographically dispersed buyers may require you to sell to an agent or wholesaler who, hopefully, will provide the needed individual attention. Industrial purchases are made directly from a manufacturer or manufacturer's representative in most cases.
How large are the orders?    You might segment your customer base by order size and sell directly to customers placing large orders and use an indirect sales method for small orders.
 
THE PRODUCT
Vivel
are high quality ranges of soaps and shampoos for the upper-mid and mid-market consumer segments. All products offer a unique value proposition of bringing together  ingredients that provide the benefit of Nourishment, Protection and Moisturisation through one product, hence providing the ever discerning consumer complete care, which makes her beautifuland confident.

DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL OF VIVEL SOAP FROM ITC NEED:
Distribution channels are sets of interdependent organizations involved in the process of making a product or service available for use or consumption. From the point of view of making available products and services, the existence of intermediaries between the products and the ultimate end users is inevitable. This inevitability is primarily due to thefact that producers can exploit the economies of scale only if they produce in bulk, which inturn results in the production function getting concentrated in a single location. It is noticedthat channels are created for reaching out to different customers who are spread wide acrossterritories.Each channel addresses the needs of the customer. The mass retail and key retail segmentsaddress the convenience aspect as they are located in proximity to residential areas. TheModern Retail outlets might address the same customer but provides a different value proposition. It addresses a different need of providing a wide array of products under oneroof when the customer values a shopping experience, and would like to have an experienceof picking up his groceries and personal care products.For example in case of VIVEL soap, ITC towards making this product reach the end user had to employ the right channel, and ensure proper strategies are in place towardsmaximizing the off take of the product through the channel by the target customers. Nowthe availability of the same product at different channel members is different. The productmay be available in boxes and in large quantity at the wholesalers point targeting theretailers whereas the same product is available in the base pack with the retailers, heretargeting the retailers. Even at this part of the channel, there is a difference. The product at alocal
Kiryana shop may be available with no offer whereas the same product at a big
departmental store might be available with an offer. This is how each channel member actsdifferently with the same motive of increasing sales and profit.
DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL STRUCTURE:

DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL PLAYERS
1) Factories
: ITC Limited has two manufacturing facilities of soaps in India. These are located oneeach at Bangaluru and Haridwar. Apart from these two there are four other units which manufacturesoaps and other personal care products for ITC. The goods from the factories goes directly to theWholesale service providers. These factories are well connected with the branch offices. From hereexchange of information takes place which guides the flow of products to the Wholesale service providers.
2) Wholesale service providers (WSP):
The role of the WSPs is to simply take delivery of the goods from the factories that the ITC have atsix different locations across India and forward it to the Wholesale Dealers. They are almost thesame as C&F agents in the other companies. They are given commissions for their handling of thegoods. They in turn have to see that the goods reach the next point of the channel that is theWholesale dealers in time and safely. They also have to maintain their stock level and see that thedistributor is maintaining their stock as per the norms of the Company.The stock norms are maintained in ITC as a real time basis. ITC have software named SIFY Forumfor the same. This is a real time software, by the use of which the WSP agent can know the stock level maintained by the Distributor and vice versa. It also helps in ordering of the stock for theDistributor and the other channel members.3)
Wholesale Dealer:
A Wholesale Dealer is a channel member in the distribution system which plays a vital rolein the reach of the products of a company to the customers. They buy the products from thecompany and in turn deliver to the further channel members at their own cost. They have tomaintain their own Sales force as well all other necessary infrastructure or the manpower necessaryfor them so that the goods pass on smoothly and in time to the customers at the POP.The efficiency of the Distributors can be judged by the ROI that they achieve.ROI or Return onInvestment is the net profit that a Distributor saves for himself. It is determined by the totalInvestments made divided by the total expenses. It takes into account all the expenses for a particular company including the cost of the stock norms that they have to maintain for a particular company. It also takes into account the rotation of the money made by the distributors, the working
capital maintained and the credit policy given by the Company and the credit policy they appliesfurther. It also takes into account the Manpower that they have to keep for the smooth functioning of the channel members. In FMCG industry the healthy ROI is said to be anything between 18%-24%.But in some cases the Distributors can only maintain a ROI of <15%. It is mainly because of theinefficiency of the distributor in his distribution of the Goods from the company to the other members of the Distribution channel. A distributor reduces his ROI if he maintains a high credit period and his rotation of the working capital is very less. If the rotation is twice a month then theROI is said to be 24%. This can be achieved by maintaining a credit period of 10-15 days.To carry out operations, a WD needs to recruit effective manpower. The manpower includes thesalesman (DS), suppliers, supervisors and computer operators. The salesman goes to the market andrepresents the company, hence he needs to be smart and well mannered. It becomes essential for theWD point to recruit a staff which is capable of effective sell in. The WD point is also required torecruit suppliers for supplying the goods in the market. Again the suppliers must be well manneredwith good knowledge of the market. The WD point must ensure enough storing place for the products at the point.The products from the WD point moves to the retailers and the secondary wholesellers.
4) Wholesalers:
Any product category which is high selling will have wholesalers. Same is in the case of ITC. In the product category - cigarettes or the next family of product categories - Personal care products, allhave a combination of wholesale and Retail Sale. The only difference between the two is the off take levels, financial capacity and sometimes infrastructure to deliver to retailers. Normally the ratesfor wholesale is cheaper than retail, as it is in bulk. This sometimes led to price cutting in market.Both retail and wholesale have a role to play. It’s always good to have high retail throughput (TotalRetail Sales/ Total Sales) to have higher control of organization over the retailers. This will help theorganization to launch new brands in future, increase visibility at the outlets, which is just becauseof relationship of organization salesman with Trade. At the other end, in case of insufficient supplyfrom factories or WSPs, there will be sufficient stock to deliver to outlets to serve the conserve.Also, there are many markets which are practically and financially not possible for muchorganizations to cover like less than 10K markets, Here these small retailers in smaller markets getthe stock from these wholesalers which are located at some distance from them.
5) Retailers
These include the retail channels for Personal Care products under the General Tradecategory. Key Retail outlets are other large kirana shops which are not wholesalers. They too cater to residents largely and visitors and passerby’s. The average sale of these stores could vary betweenRs 10000 per month and Rs 40000 per month. These again are serviced once or twice a week
depending on the BPM and the company and the range of products it deals with. The mass retailoutlets are typically serviced once a week and cater to the local populace. Their reach & ability tocater to the occasional customer mandate their existence. They generally stock those products whichare in demand from the customers and have a good consumer pull The smaller SKU’s such assachets are popular. The company replenishes the stocks on a fortnightly/ weekly basis and has littleinfluence over the portfolio maintained by the retailers. These outlets are the largest in number andare key points for the company in terms of reaching the masses.

##########################
b) What is Personal Selling? Critically evaluate the growing importance of personal
    selling in the present market environment.

Personal Selling
Involves the face to face interaction between the buyer and the seller.For this kind of selling to be effective, the salesperson has to employ a series of steps which constitute the "Creative Selling Process." These steps are
i) Prospecting: Everyone cannot be a company's customer. The important question is "Whom do you sell to."? We cannot sell a tractor to beauty
parlour, or a sewing machine to a baker. The process of locating, identifying and finding people who are likely to have a need or want for a particular product or service, is called Prospecting.
People or organizations, thus identified are called "suspects" or leads. These leads then have to be qualified in terms, of money, authority and need" to turn them into prospects.
Sources of leads include; Referrals, Trade directories, Telephone directories, Cold calling, Housing records, Marriage registers, Observation and Trade Shows etc.
Pre Approach: Having located a prospect, the next step is to gather as much information about the prospect, in terms of his/her, need, status, background, values, education, occupation, experience, likes, dislikes, hobbies and so on. This helps in avoiding tactical blunders, during a sales call and establishing a better report with the prospect. All this is done, before meeting the prospect.
Approach: This is the first minute or two of the sale. It can either make or break a presentation. It is often said that the seller's "First ten words are more important than the next ten thousand."

A sales person will never get a second chance .to make a first impression. He/she should therefore make it good. Elements like facial expression, eye contact, dress and grooming, enthusiasm, handshake etc; are very significant. Many of these elements are non verbal and it is important to remember that in a face to face communication between two people, 93% of what transpires is non verbal (body language) and only 7% is verbal.
Presentation: Having won the prospects' confidence, the next stage in the selling process for the sales person, is to offer the benefits and advantages of his proposition through the main body of the sale.

The sales person has to consciously or unconsciously move the prospect through the stages known as AIDA (Attention-Interest-Desire-Action). The effort should be to arouse a high degree of interest in the prospect to evince a positve response from him/her.
Trial Close: The next stage calls for extreme sharpness on the part of the sales person to assess the readiness of the prospect to buy. An affirmative response from the prospect to questions like "How do you spell your name? With an `E' or am F? do you want "Standard" or "Primer" finish? will give an indication to seller that the prospect is almost ready to buy.
Handling Objections: "Selling begins when the buyer says No." This means that if the buyer raises an objection or seeks a clarification, it should be seen as an opportunity by the salesperson to exploit when the prospect, takes the trouble to object, it shows that he/she is interested. The sales person should then handle the objection tactfully, through product knowledge and communication skills, to get the buyer to say `yes'.
Closing a Sale: This refers to asking for the order. The seller can use a number of closing techniques, involving, emotions, timing, availability to politely ask for the order, by saying things like; "It is a pleasure to do business with you. It is a decision you will never regret."
Follow up: Having clinched the deal, the seller's job now, is to reassure the customer that he/she has bought the right product, and the sales person and his company will always be there when needed. Figure 2: below summarises the Creative Selling Process. ii) iii) iv)
         





-to increase  sales in  the current customers.
-to introduce and enter  new  customers
-to prospect  new customers.
-to  enter  new  markets.
-to  increase  the customer coverage.
-to increase  the  market coverage.
-to  improve  the  distribution.
-to  manage  effectively  all  types of resellers
-to  support  the  new  product  launches.
-to provide  effective  customer  service
-to  train  the  customers/resellers
-to  support  sales  promotions
-by  increasing  product  coverage
-by  increasing  product  ranging
-by  selling  more products  to  the  current  customers.
-by  selling  new products  to  the  current  customers.
-by  selling  current  products  to  the  new  customers.
-by  selling  new  products  to  the  new  customers.

ALL  THESE  HELPS

-to  gain sales.
-to  gain market  share
HENCE  OVERCOME  THE  COMPETITION.

Personal selling is used to meet the five objectives of promotion in the following ways:
1   Building Product Awareness – A common task of salespeople, especially when selling in business markets, is to educate customers on new product offerings. In fact, salespeople serve a major role at industry trades shows  where they discuss products with show attendees. But building awareness using personal selling is also important in consumer markets. As we will discuss, the advent of controlled word-of-mouth marketing is leading to personal selling becoming a useful mechanism for introducing consumers to new products.
2   Creating Interest – The fact that personal selling involves person-to-person communication makes it a natural method for getting customers to experience a product for the first time. In fact, creating interest goes hand-in-hand with building product awareness as sales professionals can often accomplish both objectives during the first encounter with a potential customer.
3   Providing Information – When salespeople engage customers a large part of the conversation focuses on product information. Marketing organizations provide their sales staff with large amounts of sales support including brochures, research reports, computer programs and many other forms of informational material.
4   Stimulating Demand – By far, the most important objective of personal selling is to convince customers to make a purchase.
5   Reinforcing the Brand – Most personal selling is intended to build long-term relationships with customers. A strong relationship can only be built over time and requires regular communication with a customer. Meeting with customers on a regular basis allows salespeople to repeatedly discuss their company’s products and by doing so helps strengthen customers’ knowledge of what the company has to offer.

SALES  PROCESS
This summary is a brief overview of the  THE  SALES  PROCESS.
---------------------------------------------
PROSPECTING

GREETING

QUALIFYING

DEMONSTRATING

INFLUENCING

CLOSING
----------------------------------------------------
PROSPECTING
This is the first step of any sale. It is the phase of the sale where prospects are identified, detailed background
information is gathered, the physical activity of traditional prospecting is coordinated and an overall strategy for
face-to-face selling is developed.
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EVALUATING OTHERS: The capacity to objectively assess or
measure the abilities and performance of other people.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
ROLE CONFIDENCE: The capacity of maintaining confidence and
self-reliance for fulfilling various professional and personal roles.
----------------------------------------------------------------
PERSISTENCE: The capacity to steadily pursue any project or goal
that a person is committed to in spite of difficulty, opposition or
discouragement.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INTUITIVE DECISION MAKING: The capacity to make decisions by
looking at the most essential elements and without all the facts or data.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
====================================================================
GREETING
The first face-to-face interaction between a prospect and the salesperson, this step is designed to enable the
salesperson to display his/her sincere interest in the prospect...to gain positive acceptance and to develop a sense  of mutual respect and rapport. It is the first phase of face-to-face trust building and sets the face-to-face selling  process in motion.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
ATTITUDE TOWARD OTHERS: The general capacity one has for
relating with other people.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
RELATING TO OTHERS: The capacity to understand and relate to
others when communicating with them.
--------------------------------------------------------------
INITIATIVE: The compelling desire to get into the flow of work in order
to accomplish the vision and complete the goal.
----------------------------------------------------------------
SENSITIVITY TO OTHERS: The capacity to understand and appreciate
the value of other people with genuine concern for their needs, desires
and feelings.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
=====================================================================
QUALIFYING
The detailed needs analysis phase of the face-to-face sale. This step of the sale enables the salesperson to
discover what the prospect will buy, when they will buy and under what conditions they will buy. It is allowing the
prospect to identify and verbalize their level of interest, specific wants and detailed needs in the product or
service the salesperson is offering.
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SELF CONFIDENCE: A measure of a person’s assured self-reliance in
his or her abilities.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
EVALUATING WHAT IS SAID: The capacity to objectively listen,
understand and accurately interpret what someone else is saying.
------------------------------------------------------------------
EMPATHETIC OUTLOOK: The capacity to perceive and understand
the individuality in others.
---------------------------------------------------------------
PROBLEM SOLVING: The ability to identify key components of the
problem, possible solutions and the action plan to obtain the desired
result.
-------------------------------------------------------------
======================================================================
DEMONSTRATING
This step allows the salesperson to present his/ her product knowledge in such a way that it fulfills the stated or
implied wants, needs or intentions of the prospect as identified and verbalized in the qualifying phase of the sale.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROBLEM SOLVING: The ability to identify key components of the
problem, possible solutions and the action plan to obtain the desired
result.
---------------------------------------------------------------
USING COMMON SENSE: The capacity to be resourceful and apply
good, practical, ordinary sense in whatever situations arise.
---------------------------------------------------------
CONCRETE ORGANIZATION: The capacity to understand essential
factors of a situation and bring together all necessary resources.
-----------------------------------------------------------
SENSE OF TIMING: The ability to do the correct thing at the correct
time.
----------------------------------------------------------
=============================================================
INFLUENCING
What people believe enough, they act upon. This step is designed to enable the salesperson to build value and
overcome the tendency that many prospects have to place little belief or trust in what is told to them. It is this
phase of the sale that solidifies the prospect's belief in the supplier, product or service and salesperson.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INTUITIVE DECISION MAKING: The capacity to make decisions by
looking at the most essential elements and without all the facts or data.
---------------------------------------------------------------
PERSUADING OTHERS: The capacity to influentially present one’s
positions, opinions, feelings or views to others in such a way that they
will listen and adopt the same view.
----------------------------------------------------------
EMPATHETIC OUTLOOK: The capacity to perceive and understand
the individuality in others.
------------------------------------------------------------
UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS: The ability to understand
and inspire others in such a way that gets them to act.
-----------------------------------------------------------
===============================================================
CLOSING
The final phase is closing. This phase of the sale is asking the prospect to buy, dealing with objections, handling
any necessary negotiation and completing the transaction to mutual satisfaction.

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SELF CONFIDENCE: A measure of a person’s assured self-reliance in
his or her abilities.
------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY: The capacity to take responsibility for
one’s own actions, conduct, obligations and decisions without excuses.
--------------------------------------------------
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: The ability to appear to be rational and
in-control when facing problems or crises.
----------------------------------------------
ATTENTION TO DETAIL: The ability to pay attention to the specific
elements, facets or parts of a situation or work assignment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=======================================================
growing importance of personal
    selling in the present market environment.
Personal selling, unlike advertising or sale promotion, involves direct relationships between the seller and the prospect or customer. In a forma sense, personal selling can be defined as a two-way flow of communication between a potential buyer and a salesperson that is designed to accomplish at least three tasks: (1) identify the potential buyer’s needs; (2) match those needs to one or more of the firm’s products or services; (3) on the basis of this match, convince the buyer to purchase the product. Finally, it is a complex communication process, one still not fully understood by marketers.
Importance of personal selling
The importance of the personal selling function depends partially on the nature of the product. As a general rule, goods that are new and different, technically complex or expensive require more personal selling effort. The salesperson plays a key role in providing the consumer with information about such products to reduce the risks involved in purchase and use. Insurance, for example, is a complex and technical product that often needs significant amounts of personal selling.
It is important to remember that for many companies the salesperson represents the customer’s main link to the firm. In fact, the salesperson is the company. Therefore it is imperative that the company take advantage of this unique link. Through the efforts of the successful salesperson, a company can build relationships with customers that continue long.
Personal selling is an integral of the marketing system, fulfilling two vital duties: one for customers and one for companies. Lacking relevant information, customers are likely to make poor buying decisions. For example: Doctors would have difficulty finding out about new drugs and procedures were it not for pharmaceutical salespeople. Second, salespeople act as a source of marketing intelligence for management. Marketing success depends on satisfying customers needs. If present products don’t fulfill customer needs then profitable opportunities may exist for new or improved products. If problems with a company’s products exist, then management must be quickly apprised of the fact. In either situation, salespeople are in the best position to act as the intermediary through which valuable information can be passed back and forth between product providers and buyers.
The sales process
Personal selling is as much an art as it is a science. The word art is used to describe that portion of the selling process that is highly creative in nature and difficult to explain.
Before management selects and trains salespeople, it should have an understanding of the sales process. Obviously, the sales process will differ according to the size of the company, the nature of the product, the market and so forth.
Sales objectives:
1. Information provision: Especially in case of new products or customers, the salesperson needs to fully explain all attributes of the product or service, answer any questions and probe for additional questions.
2. Persuasion. Once the initial product or service information is provided, the salesperson needs to focus on the following objectives:
- Clearly distinguish attributes of the firm’s products or services from those of competitors.
- Maximize the number of sales as a percent of presentations.
- Convert undecided customers into first-time buyers.
- Convert first-time customers into repeat purchasers.
- Sell additional or complementary items to repeat customers.
- Tend to the needs of dissatisfied customers.

3. After-sake service. Whether the sale represents a first-time or repeat purchase, the salesperson needs to ensure the following objectives are met:
- Delivery or installation of the product or service that meets or exceeds customer expectations.
- Immediate follow-up calls and visits to address unresolved or new concerns.
- Reassurance of products or service super priority through demonstrable actions.
The Sales Relationship-Building process
For many years the traditional approach to selling emphasized the first-time sale of a product or service as the culmination of the sales process. Marketing concept and accompanying approach to personal selling view the initial sale as merely the first step in a long-term relationship-building process, not as the end goal. The relationship-building process which is designed to meet the objectives contains six sequential stages. These stages are (1) prospecting, (2) planning the sales call, (3) presentation, (4) responding to objections, (5) obtaining commitment/closing the sale and (6) building a long-term relationship.
When a buyer and a salesperson have a close personal relationship, they both begin to rely on each other and communicate honestly. When each has a problem, they work together to solve it. Such market relationships are known as functional relationships. A person may have such a relationship with along-term medical or dental practitioner or hair-cutter.
When organizations move beyond functional relationships, t hey develop strategic partnerships or strategic alliances. These are long-term, formal relationships in which both parties make significant commitments and investments in each other in order to pursue mutual goals and to improve the profitability of each other.

Marketing managers and sales managers must make some very important decisions regarding how the sales fore should be organized. Most companies organize their sales efforts either by geography, product or customer.
There are two obvious reasons why it is critical that the sales force be properly controlled. First, personal selling can be the largest marketing expense component in the final price of the product. Second, unless the sales force is somehow directed, motivated and audited on continual basis, it is likely to be less efficient than it is capable of being. Controlling the sales force involves four key functions: (1) forecasting sales; (2) establishing sales territories and quotas, (3) analyzing expenses and (4) motivating and compensating performance.
Conclusion
We attempted to outline and explain the personal selling aspect of the promotion mix. An emphasis was placed on describing the importance of the relationship-building aspect of the personal selling process. For organizations that wish to continue to grow and prosper, personal selling plays an integral part in the marketing of products and services. As long as production continues to expand through the development of new and highly technical products, personal selling will continue to be an important part of marketing strategy.
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Example
Mary Kay Cosmetics, unlike most other consumer product companies, relies primarily on personal selling which takes place in independent interactions or at Mary Kay parties where sellers and buyers meet. While Mary Kay products are available online for purchase, customers buy products through thousands of independent consultants nationwide because Mary Kay products are not available in retail stores. Advertisements such as this personal Mary Kay beauty consultant ad communicate the product to customers. This example introduces customers to new beauty products and the concept of a personal seller who is in direct contact with the customers (and goes through the the sales process, beginning with prospecting and ending by closing and doing a follow-up). These beauty consultants represent the company to consumers, acting as salespeople to share information with consumers about various products and also listening to their opinions to find the best fit for the consumer’s needs and wants.
the purpose of it as not only making sales but building customer relationships. The role of the sales force is crucial because it provides a direct, interpersonal link of marketing communication. Aside from representing the company to the customers, personal sales representatives also represent the customers to the company, bringing back insightful information to management in order to improve the products and services.  In order to be successful a company’s marketing and sales departments should work together to effectively reach consumers and accomplish objectives just as Mary Kay has done in the beauty industry

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2.a) Discuss the importance of selling skills in personal selling function.
why  selling skills are significant for a sales job
BECAUSE  IT  HELPS
-TO  manage  the  prospects
-TO  manage  your customers
-TO  manage  the  sales pipeline more  effectivelly
-TO  control  the sales  pipeline
-TO  improve  the  sales productivity
-TO  improve  the  conversion  rate
-TO increase  the  sales
-TO increase  the  company  revenue.
-TO  increase  the  company  profit
-TO  increase  the  return  on  investment.
=========================================
how selling skills are significant for a sales job
It  helps  to,

•   Gain awareness of how different behavioral types interact in the selling environment and how this effects relationship-building
•   Explore the critical buying factors influencing customers and how to develop supportive business data to anticipate their needs
•   Utilize sales methodologies and a systematic way to remain in "sync" with customers allowing them to get to "yes" faster and easier
•   Fully grasp how to consistently communicate value throughout the entire selling interaction by recognizing the true benefits and costs of doing business
•   Develop the questioning, listening, and analytical skills necessary to perform an in-depth analysis of customer organizations and their driving forces
•   Gain an in-depth understanding of prospecting and "cold calling" skills through role-playing
•   Develop the creative problem-solving skills necessary to enhance solutions and recommendations to meet their customer's specific needs
•   Learn to anticipate and effectively handle customers' negative behavior, conflict, and objections
•   Fully grasp how to gain agreement on specific action steps in order to bring closure to discussions
•    Clarification of  customer problem,  which is important
•   Open, Closed, Clarification, Confirming and Implication Questions
•   Strategically using questions to determine customer need
•   Collaboratively develop specific course of action
•   TAKING  Value vs. Risk Analysis
•   Integrate value and benefit into recommending the solution
•   Test for agreement on established recommendation
•   Gain official commitment on the recommendation
========================================================
THERE  ARE  MANY  TYPES  OF  SELLING
1.RETAIL  SELLING
-which is person to person  selling  on  the retail  floor.
2.CONSULTATIVE SELLING
-this   is  a  selling  style,in  which  the  salesperson   acts  as a  consultant
to   the  prospects   and  offers  a solution  to the  prospect's  problems.
3.RELATIONSHIP  SELLING.
-this  is  a style  used  to  develop   the  relationship  with
the  current  customer  for  long term benefits.
4. MAJOR ACCOUNT  SELLING.
-this is  a  style  adopted   to  
develop/ manage/maintain  large  accounts  for  the  company.
5.KEY  ACCOUNT   SELLING
-this is   an  account  who  buys  nearly  [ 5-10]%  of  your
company's  production.
6. INSTITUTIONAL  SELLING.
-this is  selling    quantities  to  institutions  like
hospitals / healthcare centres/ educational  institutions.
7.SERVICE   SELLING
-using  concept  techniques  to  sell   services  like
freight  forwarding/   courier  services  etc
8.CONTRACT  SELLING
-selling  through  tenders/ tenders   etc
======================================
========================================
SOME  SELECTION  OF
SELLING SKILLS
_____ Contacting
_____ Persuading
_____ Reviewing
_____ Inspecting
_____ Informing
_____ Promoting
_____ Convincing
_____ Influencing
_____ Comparing
_____ Representing
_____ Asking
_____ Closing
_____ Negotiating
_____ Communicating
_____ Calculating
_____ Advising
_____ Contracting
_____ Recommending
_____ Problem Solving
==============================================
SALES SKILLS SUMMARY
This summary is a brief overview of the  SKILLS  in  a  SALES  PROCESS.
---------------------------------------------
PROSPECTING

GREETING

QUALIFYING

DEMONSTRATING

INFLUENCING

CLOSING
----------------------------------------------------
PROSPECTING
This is the first step of any sale. It is the phase of the sale where prospects are identified, detailed background
information is gathered, the physical activity of traditional prospecting is coordinated and an overall strategy for
face-to-face selling is developed.
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EVALUATING OTHERS: The capacity to objectively assess or
measure the abilities and performance of other people.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
ROLE CONFIDENCE: The capacity of maintaining confidence and
self-reliance for fulfilling various professional and personal roles.
----------------------------------------------------------------
PERSISTENCE: The capacity to steadily pursue any project or goal
that a person is committed to in spite of difficulty, opposition or
discouragement.
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INTUITIVE DECISION MAKING: The capacity to make decisions by
looking at the most essential elements and without all the facts or data.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
====================================================================
GREETING
The first face-to-face interaction between a prospect and the salesperson, this step is designed to enable the
salesperson to display his/her sincere interest in the prospect...to gain positive acceptance and to develop a sense  of mutual respect and rapport. It is the first phase of face-to-face trust building and sets the face-to-face selling  process in motion.
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ATTITUDE TOWARD OTHERS: The general capacity one has for
relating with other people.
--------------------------------------------------------------------
RELATING TO OTHERS: The capacity to understand and relate to
others when communicating with them.
--------------------------------------------------------------
INITIATIVE: The compelling desire to get into the flow of work in order
to accomplish the vision and complete the goal.
----------------------------------------------------------------
SENSITIVITY TO OTHERS: The capacity to understand and appreciate
the value of other people with genuine concern for their needs, desires
and feelings.
-------------------------------------------------------------------
=====================================================================
QUALIFYING
The detailed needs analysis phase of the face-to-face sale. This step of the sale enables the salesperson to
discover what the prospect will buy, when they will buy and under what conditions they will buy. It is allowing the
prospect to identify and verbalize their level of interest, specific wants and detailed needs in the product or
service the salesperson is offering.
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SELF CONFIDENCE: A measure of a person’s assured self-reliance in
his or her abilities.
-----------------------------------------------------------------
EVALUATING WHAT IS SAID: The capacity to objectively listen,
understand and accurately interpret what someone else is saying.
------------------------------------------------------------------
EMPATHETIC OUTLOOK: The capacity to perceive and understand
the individuality in others.
---------------------------------------------------------------
PROBLEM SOLVING: The ability to identify key components of the
problem, possible solutions and the action plan to obtain the desired
result.
-------------------------------------------------------------
======================================================================
DEMONSTRATING
This step allows the salesperson to present his/ her product knowledge in such a way that it fulfills the stated or
implied wants, needs or intentions of the prospect as identified and verbalized in the qualifying phase of the sale.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PROBLEM SOLVING: The ability to identify key components of the
problem, possible solutions and the action plan to obtain the desired
result.
---------------------------------------------------------------
USING COMMON SENSE: The capacity to be resourceful and apply
good, practical, ordinary sense in whatever situations arise.
---------------------------------------------------------
CONCRETE ORGANIZATION: The capacity to understand essential
factors of a situation and bring together all necessary resources.
-----------------------------------------------------------
SENSE OF TIMING: The ability to do the correct thing at the correct
time.
----------------------------------------------------------
=============================================================
INFLUENCING
What people believe enough, they act upon. This step is designed to enable the salesperson to build value and
overcome the tendency that many prospects have to place little belief or trust in what is told to them. It is this
phase of the sale that solidifies the prospect's belief in the supplier, product or service and salesperson.
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INTUITIVE DECISION MAKING: The capacity to make decisions by
looking at the most essential elements and without all the facts or data.
---------------------------------------------------------------
PERSUADING OTHERS: The capacity to influentially present one’s
positions, opinions, feelings or views to others in such a way that they
will listen and adopt the same view.
----------------------------------------------------------
EMPATHETIC OUTLOOK: The capacity to perceive and understand
the individuality in others.
------------------------------------------------------------
UNDERSTANDING MOTIVATIONAL NEEDS: The ability to understand
and inspire others in such a way that gets them to act.
-----------------------------------------------------------
===============================================================
CLOSING
The final phase is closing. This phase of the sale is asking the prospect to buy, dealing with objections, handling
any necessary negotiation and completing the transaction to mutual satisfaction.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SELF CONFIDENCE: A measure of a person’s assured self-reliance in
his or her abilities.
------------------------------------------------------------
PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY: The capacity to take responsibility for
one’s own actions, conduct, obligations and decisions without excuses.
--------------------------------------------------
EMOTIONAL CONTROL: The ability to appear to be rational and
in-control when facing problems or crises.
----------------------------------------------
ATTENTION TO DETAIL: The ability to pay attention to the specific
elements, facets or parts of a situation or work assignment.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
=======================================================
In  addition  to  the  above  skills,  there  are   other  personality/ job oriented/
transferable  skills ,  which  form  part  of   SALES  REPRESENTATIVE
JOB  POSITION  SKILLS.
HERE  IS   A  SUMMARY  OF   THE   TOTAL.

SELLING SKILLS
_____ Contacting
_____ Persuading
_____ Reviewing
_____ Inspecting
_____ Informing
_____ Promoting
_____ Convincing
_____ Influencing
_____ Comparing
_____ Representing
_____ Asking
_____ Closing
_____ Negotiating
_____ Communicating
_____ Calculating
_____ Advising
_____ Contracting
_____ Recommending
_____ Problem Solving

OTHERS

---------Planning
_____ Organizing
_____ Scheduling
_____ Administering
_____ Conducting
_____ Controlling
_____Coordinating
_____ Initiating
_____ Formulating
_____ Supporting
_____ Negotiating
_____ Decision Making
_____ Conceptualizing
_____ Problem Solving
COMMUNICATION
SKILLS
_____ Reasoning
_____ Defining
_____ Writing
_____ Listening
_____ Explaining
_____ Interpreting
_____ Reading
_____ Speaking
_____ Instructing
_____ Interviewing
_____ Collaborating
_____ Presenting
_____ Formulating
_____ Proposing
=============================================
Product Knowledge      
Company Knowledge [ YOUR COMPANY/ THEIR SERVICES]      
Human Relations in Selling
Planning of Sales      
Time Management
Prospecting New Clients      
opening the Sales      
customer Relations
Sales Presentation      
Customer  Servicing
Sales Negotiation       
Persuasive Selling
Sales Communication      
Psychology in Selling
sales Counselling      
Probing Techniques
Consultative Selling      
Handling  of  various Types of customers
Handling Objections      
Building Goodwill
Organisation  of  your daily work      
Listening Skills
Setting Goals      
Telephone Techniques
Selling Benefits      
Competitor's Knowledge      
Pre call Planning




b) Suggest suitable presentation strategy in the following situations.

  i) Creating awareness for safe drinking water among rural people
ii) Presenting your self the suitability for a senior sales position for the top    management of an MNC.

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