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Careers: Business/accounting for managers


Good evening!

iam jousuf iam sending you the subjects of 1st sem form bharathiar university iam totally confused i dont know how to study text book, because it is very large and heavy and the text book is very fat and  have very vast chapters pls help me how to get the easy study tips i need easy answers, there is no guide or scanner for this subjects  
1. Financial markets and institution
2. Management economics
3. Financial accounting
4. Management information system
5. Elective -1
principles and practice of marketing of services

with regards

1.   Financial markets and institution
2. Management economics
3. Financial accounting
4. Management information system
5. Elective -1
principles and practice of marketing of services

Students grapple with many issues in their lives, and because of all of the competing things for your attention, it’s hard to concentrate on studying. The key to effective studying isn’t cramming or studying longer, but studying smarter. You can begin studying smarter with these ten proven and effective study habits.
1. How you approach studying matters
Too many people look at studying as a necessary task, not an enjoyment or opportunity to learn. That’s fine, but researchers have found that how you approach something matters almost as much as what you do. Being in the right mindset is important in order to study smarter.
Sometimes you can’t “force” yourself to be in the right mindset, and it is during such times you should simply avoid studying. If you’re distracted by a relationship issue, an upcoming game, or finishing an important project, then studying is just going to be an exercise in frustration. Come back to it when you’re not focused (or obsessed!) by something else going on in your life.
Way to help improve your study mindset:
•   Aim to think positively when you study, and remind yourself of your skills and abilities.
•   Avoid catastrophic thinking. Instead of thinking, “I’m a mess, I’ll never have enough time to study for this exam,” look at it like, “I may be a little late to study as much as I’d like, but since I’m doing it now, I’ll get most of it done.”
•   Avoid absolute thinking. Instead of thinking “I always mess things up,” the more objective view is, “I didn’t do so well that time, what can I do to improve?”
•   Avoid comparing yourself with others, because you usually just end up feeling bad about yourself.
2. Where you study is important
A lot of people make the mistake of studying in a place that really isn’t conducive to concentrating. A place with a lot of distractions makes for a poor study area. If you try and study in your dorm room, for instance, you may find the computer, TV, or a roommate more interesting than the reading material you’re trying to digest.
The library, a nook in a student lounge or study hall, or a quiet coffee house are good places to check out. Make sure to choose the quiet areas in these places, not the loud, central gathering areas. Investigate multiple places on-campus and off-campus, don’t just pick the first one your find as “good enough” for your needs and habits. Finding an ideal study place is important, because it’s one you can reliably count on for the next few years.
3. Bring everything you need, nothing you don’t
Unfortunately, when you find an ideal place to study, sometimes people bring things they don’t need. For instance, while it may seem ideal to type notes into a computer to refer back to later, computers are a powerful distraction for many people because they can do so many different things. Playing games, going online, IM’ing, surfing the Web, and answering emails are all wonderful distractions that have nothing to do with studying. So ask yourself whether you really need a computer to take notes, or whether you can make do with the old-fashioned paper and pen or pencil.
Don’t forget the things you need to study for the class, exam or paper you’re focusing on for the study session. Nothing is more time-consuming and wasteful than having to run back and forth regularly because you forget an important book, paper, or some other resource you need to be successful. If you study best with your favorite music playing, make sure your iPod is with you.
4. Outline and rewrite your notes
Most people find that keeping to a standard outline format helps them boil information down to its most basic components. People find that connecting similar concepts together makes it easier to remember when the exam comes around. The important thing to remember in writing outlines is that an outline only words as a learning tool when it is in your own words and structure. Every person is unique in how they put similar information together (called “chunking” by cognitive psychologists). So while you’re welcomed to copy other people’s notes or outlines, make sure you translate those notes and outlines into your own words and concepts. Failing to do this is what often causes many students to stumble in remembering important items.
It may also be helpful to use as many senses as possible when studying, because information is retained more readily in people when other senses are involved. That’s why writing notes works in the first place – it puts information into words and terms you understand. Mouthing the words out loud while you copy the notes before an important exam can be one method for involving yet another sense.
5. Use memory games (mnemonic devices)
Memory games, or mnemonic devices, are methods for remembering pieces of information using a simple association of common words. Most often people string together words to form a nonsense sentence that is easy to remember. The first letter of each word can then be used to stand for something else – the piece of information you’re trying to remember. The most common mnemonic device example is “Every Good Boy Deserves Fun.” Putting the first letters of every word together – EGBDF – gives a music student the five notes for treble clef.
The key to such memory devices is the new phrase or sentence you come up with has to be more memorable and easier to remember than the terms or information you’re trying to learn. These don’t work for everyone, so if they don’t work for you, don’t use them.
Mnemonic devices are helpful because you use more of your brain to remember visual and active images than you do to remember just a list of items. Using more of your brain means better memory.
6. Practice by yourself or with friends
The old age adage, practice makes perfect, is true. You can practice by yourself by testing yourself with either practice exams, past quizzes, or flash cards (depending what kind of course it is and what’s available). If a practice exam isn’t available, you can make one up for yourself and your classmates (or find someone who will). If a practice or old exam from a course is available, use it as a guide – do not study to the practice or old exam! (Too many students treat such exams as the real exams, only to be disappointed when the real exam has none of the same questions). Such exams help you understand the breadth of content and types of questions to expect, not the actual material to study for.
Some people enjoy reviewing their materials with a group of friends or classmates. Such groups work best when they’re kept small (4 or 5 others), with people of similar academic aptitude, and with people taking the same class. Different formats work for different groups. Some groups like to work through chapters together, quizzing one another as they go through it. Others like to compare class notes, and review materials that way, ensuring they haven’t missed any critical points. Such study groups can be helpful for many students, but not all.
7. Make a schedule you can stick to
Too many people treat studying as the thing to do when you get around to it or have some spare time. But if you schedule study time just as your class time is scheduled, you’ll find it becomes much less of a hassle in the long run. Instead of last-minute cramming sessions, you’ll be better prepared because you haven’t put off all the studying into one 12-hour marathon. Spending 30 or 60 minutes every day you have a class studying for that class before or after is a lot easier and will allow you to actually learn more of the material.
You should study regularly throughout the semester for as many classes as you can. Some people study every day, others put it off to once or twice a week. The frequency isn’t as important as actually studying on a regular basis. Even if you just crack open a book once a week for a class, it’s better than waiting until the first exam in a massive cram session.
Scheduling is even more important if you’re going to be a part of a study group. If only half of your members are committed to a study group for every meeting, then you need to find other study group members who are as committed as you are.
8. Take breaks (and rewards!)
Because so many people view studying as a chore or task, it’s human nature to avoid it. If, however, you find rewards to help reinforce what you’re doing, you may be pleasantly surprised by the change you may find in your attitude over time.
Rewards start by chunking study time into manageable components. Studying for 4 hours at a time with no breaks is not realistic or fun for most people. Studying for 1 hour, and then taking a 5 minute break and grabbing a snack is usually more sustainable and enjoyable. Divide study time into segments that make sense and work for you. If you have to digest a whole textbook chapter, find sections in the chapter and commit to reading and taking notes on one section at a time. Maybe you only do one section in a sitting, maybe you do two. Find the limits that seem to work for you.
If you succeed in your goals (such as doing two sections of a chapter in one sitting), give yourself a real reward. Perhaps it’s saying, “I’ll treat myself to some good dessert tonight at dinner,” or “I can buy a new tune online,” or “I can spend an extra 30 minutes gaming for every 2 sections of a book chapter I read.” The point is to find a reward that is small but real, and to stick to it. Some may view this as absurd, since you’re setting limits you can easily ignore. But by setting these limits on your behavior, you’re actually teaching yourself discipline, which will be a handy skill to have throughout life.
9. Keep healthy and balanced
It’s hard to live a balanced life while in school, I know. But the more balance you seek out in your life, the easier every component in your life becomes. If you spend all of your time focusing on a relationship or a game, you can see how easy it is to be out of balance. When you’re out of balance, the things you’re not focusing on – such as studying – become that much harder. Don’t spend all of your time studying – have friends, keep in touch with your family, and find interests outside of school that you can pursue and enjoy.
Finding balance isn’t really something that can be taught, it’s something that comes with experience and simply living. But you can work to try and keep your health and body balanced, by doing what you already know – exercise regularly and eat right. There are no shortcuts to health. Vitamins and herbs might help you in the short-term, but they’re not substitute for real, regular meals and a dose of exercise every now and again (walking to class is a start, but only if you’re spending an hour or two a day doing it).
Look at vitamins and herbs as they are intended – as supplements to your regular, healthy diet. Common herbs – such as ginkgo, ginseng, and gotu kola – may help you enhance mental abilities, including concentration, aptitude, behavior, alertness and even intelligence. But they may not, either, and you shouldn’t rely on them instead of studying regularly.
10. Know what the expectations are for the class
Different professors and teachers have different expectations from their students. While taking good notes and listening in class (and attending as many of the classes as you can) are good starts, you can do one better by spending some time with the instructor or professor’s assistant. Talking to the instructor early on – especially if you foresee a difficult course ahead – will help you understand the course requirements and the professor’s expectations. Maybe most students in the class are expected to get a “C” because the material is so difficult; knowing that ahead of time helps set your expectations, too.
Pay attention in class. If the instructor writes something on the whiteboard or displays it on the screen, it’s important. But if they say something, that’s important too. Copy these things down as they’re presented, but don’t zone out completely from what the instructor is also saying. Some students focus on the written materials without regard for what the instructor is saying. If you write down only one aspect of the professor’s instructions (e.g., just what they write down), you’re probably missing about half the class.
If you get a particularly bad grade on a paper or exam, talk to the instructor. Try and understand where things went wrong, and what you can do in the future to help reduce it from happening again.
Don’t forget to learn!
Studying isn’t just about passing an exam, as most students look at it as. Studying is an effort to actually learn things, some of which you might actually care about. So while you’ll have to take your share of classes that have little or nothing to do with your interests, you should still look for interesting things to take away from every experience.
By the time you’ll realize what a great opportunity school is, you’ll be well into the middle of your life with a lot of responsibilities – children, mortgages, career pressures, etc. Then most people have neither the time nor energy to go back to school. So take the time to learn some stuff now, because you’ll appreciate the opportunity later on.

How to Study Effectively, Stay Organised and Manage Your Time
Want to ace your next test or exam? Want to be the top of the class? Well, you are in the right place. Studying, managing your time and organizing are the main components of your school life. But to really achieve, you need to stir in some endurance and determination. Pushing yourself through the tough times is the key to unlocking the door of success.
1.   1
Dream big. Grab a paper and pen. Jot down all your goals: short-term and long-term. What you want to achieve this year or want you want to do in your life. Remember: Dream big - really big. Stick it up on the wall or on your cork board, in your workplace. That way, when you feel discouraged,your goals will motivate you to achieve them.

Take notes. Summarize what the teacher is saying. Write down the important points rather than the unnecessary information. Don't pay much attention to spelling and grammar. This is just a rough draft of your summary.

3.   3
Ask questions in class. There is no point in going to school to learn, if you're going to leave the class in a confused mess. When students do not understand a concept, they usually don't accomplish well in their exams. Do not be afraid to ask. Teachers are always more than happy to help.

4.   4
Pay attention to what the teacher is saying. Don't go around passing notes to your friends, doodling on your notebook or twiddling with your pencil. You won't understand a single thing, and when it comes to exams and homework, you'll be begging your friends for help.

5.   5
Do your homework. Homework usually revisits the essential concepts that must be learned.Try making homework time fun. Crank up the music and throw in some yummy snacks. Bringing along friends can be fun too. Just don't start chatting, instead of working! Do not copy your friend's answers. You will not learn.

6.   6
Take breaks. When studying and doing homework, you can't go on forever. Information just won't stick in your head. Instead, have 10 minute breaks every hour or so. Do whatever. Read, exercise, write or even lay down. Just make sure that what you do doesn't set you off task.

Rewrite. Rewriting the notes you took in class on the same day, allows the information to stick in your head. Make sure you understand everything you write. If you don't, make sure you ask your teacher the next day. Reading your notes won't get the information a hotel room in your brain.
Create detailed notes and summaries. Using colored pens always makes things fun. Make sure you have subheadings and vocabulary in different colors. Try to write things in your own words rather than copying straight out of the textbooks. Make your notes neat and organized.
Type it all up. Keep a binder for each major subject. Type up all your notes and summaries. Make them pretty. Put the vocabulary in bold type or italics. Again, make sure you are typing it actively rather than passively. It needs to glue into your brain. Put on some music for some extra fun.
Listen to the Study Music Project. This amazing music is especially made by the superb composer: Dennis Kuo. It was created for hard-working students to listen to while studying. The beautiful music is a must for any study session.
Create the perfect study space. Buy an organized workstation and a comfy chair. Not too comfy, though. Boxes, drawers and shelves are great way to arrange things in an organized manner. Label boxes and put a cute pen cup on your desk. Good lighting is an essential must. You don't want to get tired while doing homework because you can't see. A cork board or whiteboard is good too. You can put up a calendar and write down important dates. Corking up your goals list is a great idea too. Add some pictures of family and friends.
Have a binder for each subject. This is more organized than cramming everything into one large, heavy binder. Have tabs like: homework, tests/quizzes, etc... Have some loose leaf paper and plastic sleeves at the back. Keep your notebook at the front as well as your weekly timetable. Don't forget to be creative: decorate the inside and outside of your binder.

Have a planner or diary. This is a real must. You cannot rely on your memory. Jot down due dates, homework, your weekly timetable and test dates. Keep this 'book of miracles' with you and make sure you actually use it! It is a guarantee that you will never forget about homework again.
Keep your locker organized. Pile things neatly and put a shelf or two (unless you have a small locker). Put in a pen cup and a magazine file with your notebooks inside. Clean out your locker every week. Decorate your locker as cute as possible. (Optional). Try not to put food inside so your locker doesn't stink.
Buy a sturdy backpack. Make sure it is big enough for all your books and binders. Lots of pockets will also help you organize your belongings. Put the larger and heavier objects closest to your back so that you can spread the wait over your shoulders.

7.   16
Type (or write) a vocabulary list. When it comes to tests, teachers love to ask their students for definitions. Memorize the meanings of the main concepts.

Create a schedule for your day. Write when you will do homework, when you will study and when you will have breaks. Especially when you panic, this method will help you calm down and realize that there is enough time to complete everything. It also gets your tasks done quicker.
Do exercises when studying for math. Memorize those formulas and do an endless amount of exercises. Practice is the key to math. There isn't another way to study math and many people do not realize that until years of school.

Grab a tutor. Tutoring isn't only for the 'dumb' kids. Tutoring can help even the best of students to further understand the given topic. An hour or two a week is usually sufficient to refresh your mind about what you are currently learning.

Have a notebook for each subject. Write down class notes and summaries, formulas and exercises, anything important when studying should go in either your binder or notebook.

Use flashcards. Put the question or word on one side and the answer or definition on the other. Have these in your pocket and test yourself wherever you are. Ask your parents to test you as well. Using flashcards is a helpful way of studying.
Have reference books on your desk. Dictionaries, thesauruses, encyclopedias and math books are all essential when you need something to refer to while studying or doing homework.

8.   23
Always have a diligent and determined attitude. Always go to school happy to learn. Take pride in your work and always try your very best. Don't ever copy those lazy students who do not care for their priceless education. They are the ones that will regret it when they are older and you will have the better job in your life; achieving the best.

Prioritize after-school activities. If your art class or soccer training is getting in the way of your school work, then you better take it aside. It doesn't have to be permanent; it can be temporary. Because as you know, school always comes first.

Avoid cramming for tests. This useless 'technique' never works. Studying at least 3 days before is more successful. Cramming too much information into your brain causes you to have 'mind blanks' during the test. No-one likes these little devils as they cause you to panic in a test.
Use Post-It notes. These bright, handy tools are excellent for reminding you to do things. Putting little tabs in your textbook can tell you the important pages to study. They can also help to remind you about what you need to do.
Use memory tools. Mind maps are a great way to summarize information. PowerPoint is fantastic for notes and summaries as you can choose how many slides you want on a page.

Keep that stack of homework. Invest in a cheap folder to file away those old worksheets and papers. In future years, you will definitely need to refer back to them.

Always practice and study. In the bus or during that boring visit to your grandma's - study. It always recovers you from boredom and it makes the best use of your time. Carry around some flashcards for that spare moment. It all adds up at the end.

Form a study group. Studying with friends can always be fun. Testing each other is a great way to learn. Make sure you do not get distracted, though.
•    Always try your very best.
•   Alongside those goals on the wall, stick up some motivational quotes to push you in those hard times.
•   Manage your time wisely and always create a schedule. A small notebook is good enough to jot down your timetables.
•   Have a determined and diligent attitude about your prized education. Don't say: 'Oh, I hate school.' That won't get you anywhere.
•   Always study-whenever you can.
•   Buy some cute stationery to lift your spirits when you are in a bad mood.
•   Use your time wisely.
•   Try staying organized in every aspect of your learning.
•   Prioritize.
•   Grab a tutor. A personal tutor would be better than a class as your teacher would be able to focus solely on you. Hopefully you can have a strong relationship with your tutor to increase your confidence around him/her.
If you know how to study more effectively, you'll be able to learn more, improve your performance on tests, and to make the most of every minute you spend studying. Learning to study more effectively means understanding what works best for you, and taking advantage of your strengths as a student to excel in school. If you'd like to know how to study more effectively, follow these easy steps.
Prepare to Study
1.   1
Have a game plan. Once you understand what you will have to study, it's time to execute a game plan that will make the most of your time and will help you prepare for the exam or assignment well in advance so you don't end up cramming the night before and giving yourself a headache or a low grade. Here's what you should do:

o   Always have a planner. Write in all of your courses, activities, and social engagements. Looking over your planner will give you a better sense of how your week, month, or even semester will look like, and will help you see when you'll be having a really busy week, or when you'll have a lot of free time.
o   Whether you're studying for an exam or just studying to keep up with course materials, block out "study" time for a few hours of every week. Treat this blocked-out time as seriously as you would a real class. If your friend wants to hang out during that time, say that you're busy and will have to reschedule.
o   Try to study around the same time of day. Pick a time when your brain is most alert. Some people like to study course material right after the class is over while the material is fresh in their minds, while others need a break from the material to be able to study.
o   Don't plan to study the hour before an exam. Plug that into your schedule as "relaxing" time. If you've executed your game plan, you should be ready to go by then!
o   Create an agenda for all of your studying time. Make a detailed list of which chapters, concepts, or ideas you will be studying during each of the study sessions you have allocated for yourself. This list will become refined once you have a better sense of the course material.
o   Create an agenda for each session. Before you jump into a study session, create a detailed list of a few items that you will cover during each session. Check each one off when you've got it covered.
o   Don't forget to include being healthy in your game plan. You should still have enough time to catch at least 6-8 hours of sleep a night and to exercise for 30 minutes a day or 1 hour a few times a week, even in the middle of a grueling study period. Don't forget that if your mind and body aren't healthy, you won't perform as well on the exam. While you may be sleeping and exercising a bit less, don't cut out on these important things entirely.
2.   2
Have the right attitude.[1]The right attitude will put you in a positive frame of mind, which will make you more open to and excited about studying. The wrong attitude can make you feel defeated before you even start and will keep you from being focused and absorbing the material. Before you embark on your studying journey, there are a few things you should tell yourself to maintain the right attitude.

o   Remember that you're not just studying to get an A, but to gain knowledge. That's why you're in school, isn't it? And that's pretty cool.
o   Tell yourself that you will succeed because of your hard work. Even if you're not expecting an A-plus, just tell yourself that by taking the initiative to study more effectively, your actions will have lasting effects on your grade and will make you a more diligent person. Don't tell yourself that you're going to fail no matter how hard you study, or you will.
o   Don't worry about how others are studying. Don't compare yourself to your friend who studies for 80 hours a week, or your other friend who seems to never study but always succeeds in school. Keep your focus on finding what works best for you.
o   Don't obsess over what grade you will get on the exam. Though you obviously want to get a good grade, don't obsess so much about how you will actually do until you start taking the test, or you won't be using your energy to actually study for the test.
Begin to Study
1.   1
Pick the right study environment. Remember that the right study environment for someone else may not be the best environment for you. Picking the right study environment means picking a place where you feel "in the zone" and free of distractions. Some people like to study with some background noise, while others need to study in absolute silence. Before you pick the perfect place to study, run a reconnaissance mission to find the right place. Here are some things to consider when choosing the best environment for you:

o   Pick a place that is free of distractions. Avoid being around a television or going to places where people are engaging in laughter and fun conversations. If the Internet is a big distraction for you but you need a computer to study, pick a place that does not have Wifi.
o   You can study in your dorm, but don't do it if your roommate is always around and you'd rather be talking to him than study for your big test. If you are studying in your dorm, close the door or put up a sign to let people know that they shouldn't just pop in on you.
o   Pick a place with the right noise level. If you like absolute silence, go to a library. You will also be surrounded by fellow studiers, which will motivate you to study more. If you like some background noise, try a low-key cafe.
o   Pick a place that is well-lit. A coffee shop with dim lighting may look cooler, but it will hurt your eyes and make it easier for you to fall asleep.
o   Pick a place that isn't too hot. Infernal temperatures will make you want to curl up and take a nap. Pick a place that is pleasantly cool so you can stay alert.
o   Find a place that really helps get you "in the zone." This is harder to describe, but you'll know it when you see it. This will be a place where you feel sharp, unstoppable, and motivated as soon as you walk in the door. You may even have a favorite chair or study nook in your study hall or library that really does this trick for you. Find what works and stick to it.
o   Remember that the time of day that you study is just as important as the environment. If you're an early bird and think best in the morning, maximize your morning study time. If you're a night owl and concentrate best after the sun sets, then get into the groove then.
2.   2
Bring the right things. Once you pick your dream study spot, you'll need to bring the munitions you need to keep you going. Knowing what to bring to get your study on is just as important as knowing what not to bring. When you figure out exactly what you need, you can even write a checklist so you know what works for you every time. Here are some things to consider:

o   The stuff you need to study, obviously. Bring your textbook, at least two writing utensils, a notepad, and flashcards or anything else you use to study.
o   Bring highlighters and multi-colored pens to make your note taking more effective.
o   Bring sticky tabs to highlight important parts of your textbook and notes.
o   Bring a computer if you need one. You may really need a computer to look up information online, or to consult notes that are available online. But remember that your computer is full of distractions like email, Facebook, and any sites you like to browse. Print out any notes you have online and bring them with you. Though parting with your beloved computer may be difficult, tell yourself that if you don't bring your computer, you'll not only be able to focus more, but you will also be spending less time studying.
o   Bring layers. Don't put on your heaviest wool sweater. Wear something light and comfortable and bring a sweater or sweatshirt with you. If you're too hot in your study spot and can't take off any layers, or if you're absolutely freezing without any reinforcements, you won't be able to focus on your work.
o   Bring snacks. You should snack while you're studying to keep your energy level high and to keep yourself from getting fatigued. Snacking will also keep you from giving in to big greasy meals that will make you want to fall asleep in the middle of a study session. Bring nuts like almonds, cashews, and walnuts, easy-to-carry fruits like bananas and apples, or a granola bar or two. These foods will not only give you energy, but they can actually improve your cognitive function.[2]You can also put grapes or raisins in a container.
o   If you're a caffeine addict, take a cup of tea or coffee with you, or study at a place that can give you your caffeine fix. Just don't overdo it and have a crash from too much caffeine at once. Avoid bringing energy drinks with you when you study. They will keep you alert for a while, but you will feel exhausted but will have more trouble sleeping once you crash from them.
o   Always carry a bottle of water with you. Don't forget to hydrate.
o   Bring headphones and your favorite study music. This will help you get into the groove.
o   Don't bring anything that will distract you. Will you really need your cell phone for the next four hours? If you will, try turning it off. Don't bring the new paperback novel you're loving unless you want to read some of it as a reward for getting some serious studying done.
o   Avoid clutter. Make sure that everything in your purse or bag is necessary for your study session. Your mind will feel less cluttered if there is less clutter in your life.
3.   3
Study with a variety of methods. Studying by using a variety of methods will help you reach a deeper understanding of the material and will also help you mix up your studying habits and will keep things interesting. Here are some ways to study:

o   Create an outline. Create an outline of the course material using your notes and your textbook. Make sure to write the outline in your own words so you are actually learning the material, not just regurgitating it. An outline is a great way to learn the material and to organize your thoughts.
o   Use flashcards. Write the most significant terms on flash cards and quiz yourself or a friend to see how many terms you've memorized. Put the terms you know in a "done" pile, and put the ones you're iffy on in a "needs more work" pile. Keep quizzing yourself until everything is in the "done" pile. Flashcards are especially useful when you're learning a foreign language, or if you're taking a history class with a lot of different terms and historical figures. You can also study your flashcards in a pinch when you're on the bus.
o   Use mnemonic devices. Mnemonic devices are a great way to remember a list of complicated terms, such as using PEMDAS to represent the order of operations in math. (PEMDAS stands for "Parentheses, Exponents, Multiplication, Division, Addition, and Subtraction).
o   Rewrite your notes. If you typed your notes, handwrite them, or if you wrote them by hand, type them up. Make sure to change your sentence structure and phrasing so you really understand the notes you took in class. There's a good chance that you wrote your notes so quickly during class that you weren't focusing on their meaning.
o   Take practice exams. If your teacher or professor has practice exams for you, or if they are available in the back of your textbook, they can help you get into exam mode. You can also have fun making up practice questions in your study group.
o   Create a game. If you're working with a study group, have fun creating a game or game show that can help you have fun while learning the material for class.
4.   4
Use your resources. When you study, don't forget that a wealth of resources are available to you beyond just your textbook and notes. If you're studying, then you must be in school, and schools will have a variety of resources to help you make your studying as effective as possible. Here are some resources to use:

o   Your library is always a useful tool. Use your school's library to check out books that help you understand the subject better, or talk to the librarian to see if she can help you find additional resources.
o   Take advantage of office hours. Come to your professor's office hours with a few questions, and talk with him to get a better understanding of your course material. Going to office hours will also help your professor put a name to a face, and will show him that you care about your studies.
o   Attend recitation sections. Though not every class has a recitation section, if you have one, you should make a point of attending with a pen in hand. Some students like to blow them off, but this section is a chance for you to have a deeper understanding of the course material, and in many cases, attending will help your participation grade.
o   If you don't have recitation sessions, you should still talk to your TA (if you have one). If you're in a big class, the TA can help you understand the course material better, and will give you more individual attention.
o   Attend study groups. Whether your class has organized separate study groups or a group of your friends is planning to get together to study, you should take advantage of learning in a small group environment. Studying with just 4-5 other people who are at the same academic level and equally motivated will help you gain a new perspective on the material, and will help you learn more as you quiz and respond to the other members in the group. Just make sure you join a group that is productive and committed to studying, not goofing off.
o   Study groups are also great because they are usually held at the same time each week, so they will help you have a more organized study routine.
5.   5
Take breaks. Remember that taking breaks is just as important as focusing on your studies. The mind does better when you take a short break every half hour to an hour. This helps you absorb material and decompress, and will get your mind feeling fresh for more studying. If you study for six hours without stopping, you will give yourself a headache. Here's what to do:

o   Don't forget to move around. Try to take a lap around the library, get in line to order a coffee, or walk across the study hall to get some water. This will keep your body moving, will make you more alert, and will help your body and eyes adjust from all the time you've spent sitting in one spot.
o   Get some fresh air. If you're cooped up in the library, take a break to study in the fresh air, or to take a ten minute walk once in a while. You will feel reinvigorated and ready for more studying.
o   Don't forget to eat. Though your snacks will help you make it through a rigorous session, don't skip meals in favor of studying more. Take a break to have a healthy lunch or foods that will keep you going, like fish, or a sandwich with whole wheat bread, or even eggs. Avoid greasy or high-fat foods or you will be taxing your digestive system.
o   Give yourself small rewards from time to time. Tell yourself that you can check your Facebook account once you finish reading Chapter 1, or that you can turn your phone on after you've studied for an hour. Do what you need to do to motivate yourself to finish.
o   Know when to take a break. If all of the words on the page are blurring together, or if you're so distracted by something that you can't read a sentence, it's time to take a break. If your eyes keep closing every time you open your book and your eyes feel like sandbags, it may be time to go to sleep. Don't force yourself to study when you have passed the point of productivity.


3.   Management economics
4. Management information system
5. Elective -1
principles and practice of marketing of services


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Leo Lingham


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