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Careers: Business/Business major and investment banking


hi.I want to do my major in finance. what jobs in finance is best for flexibility and pay? how about investment banker? what i have to do to become a investment banker?is the life of a investment banker is very hard? what are requirements of it? Or what business major has the best value?And which business jobs has has the best flexibility and pay?What i have to do for that? please suggest me a good way to a best future? i am good with numbers and people.
Thank you.


My  first  suggestion

-contact  career  consultant  and  do an  aptitude  test  .
get  a second  opinion   of  your  interest.

Sometime  some gut feelings / warm feelings   may not
be  in  your   real  interests.


You  need  to  discuss  with  some  people  and  come  to  a
judgement, what  is  best  for  you.

The  questions   are  centered  around  
-personal  interest
-career  interest/ why
-subject interest
-career  plan
-career  goal

- Plan  to  achieve  this  through a  planned  program  of  
education  / specialized  courses  and  career activities.

MBA,   plan  to   specialize  in  FINANCE  and  managerial
economics. This  will  provide  YOU   with technical professional
proficiency  in   FINANCE   and  managerial   economics.


-take coaching  / training  in  public speaking, presentation
and  communication.
Finance  studies   addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. The term finance may thus incorporate any of the following:
•   The study of MONEY and other ASSETS.
•   The management and control of those MONIES / ASSETS.
•   Profiling and managing project risks
•   Organize    and    provide funds for  PERSONAL /  BUSINESS.



-financial  planner

-merchant  banker

-stock  broker

-financial  analyst

-investment   banker

-investment  consultant

-business  manager

-jobs  in  banks

-financial  consultant

-finance  managers

-professor  of  finance

-fund  manager

-wealth  manager

-business loans  ORGANIZERS

-  loans   AGENTS

-mortgage loans  AGENTS

-merchant  bankers

-financial brokers

-venture  capitalists

-insurance  companies

etc etc



*Public  speaking  skills
*presentation  skills
*negotiation  skills
*selling  concepts
*leadership   skills
*Interpersonal  skills


Taking risks, adapting quickly to change, leading the change process

Positively influencing people and events

3.Impact & Influence
Persuading, convincing or influencing

4.Organizational Awareness
Understanding business plan goals

Working cooperatively and productively with others to achieve results

Managing and continually improving one's own performance

7.Client Focus
Understanding and meeting or exceeding client needs

8.Results Orientation
Knowing what results are important, and focusing resources to achieve them

Clearly conveying and receiving messages to meet the needs of all

10.Organizational Commitment
Aligning behaviour with department values, principles and goals

11.Relationship Building
Developing and maintaining win/win relationships and partnerships

12.Service Facilitation
Ensuring contracted services are delivered effectively to clients

13.Resource Management
Effectively managing internal and external resources to achieve organizational goals

14.Strategic Thinking
Taking a broad scale, long term view, assessing options and implications


Division of banking
encompassing business entities dealing with creation of capital for other companies. In addition to acting as agents or underwriters for companies in the process of issuing securities, investment banks also advise companies on matters related to the issue and placement of stock.

Makes  Investment   choices
An overview of the different types of investment choices available to the potential investor. Learn about short and long term investments, stocks, bonds, and mutual funds.

Buying  and selling  of  stocks/shares/investment  products
Learn the best time to buy or sell an investment.
Also suggests templates for investment analysis and transaction records.

Typically, an investment banking group nowadays provides world-wide some or all of the following services, either in divisions of the bank or in associated companies within the group:
•   Corporate Finance and advisory work, normally in connection with new issues of securities for raising finance, take-overs, mergers and acquisitions;
•   Banking, for governments, institutions and companies;
•   Treasury dealing for corporate clients in currencies, with financial engineering services to protect them from interest and exchange rate fluctuations;
•   Investment management, either for corporate pension funds, charities, private clients, either via direct investment for the more wealthy or via unit and investment trusts. In the larger firms, the value of funds under management runs into many billions of pounds;
•   Securities trading, in equities, bonds or derivatives and offering broking and distribution facilities.


Projects disbursements OF  funds and helps prepare short-term economic forecasts;
Assists with the implementation of investment strategies aimed at making optimal  use  of  monies.
Conducts extensive financial analyses and prepares financial schedules;
Operates the cash desk and actively invests funds;
Invests general obligation bond portfolios.
funds and to Internal Revenue Service requirements for arbitrage;
Assists with management of the  activities to include auditing account analyses,
and forecasting expenses and compensation balance target;
Assists with preparing investment recommendations for the investment steering committee; and
Assists with analyzing equity, fixed income, real estate and global investment proposals for the
Director of Finance.
Participates in the recommendation and implementation of investment strategies aimed at
making optimal use of  retirement funds;

Directs, monitors and reviews the work of the agency's Performance Analyst and provides
direction and oversight to the Systems' investment-related contracts.

In conjunction with Attorney, negotiates and prepares all investment-
related contracts and fee schedules;
Assists in monitoring the performance of the Systems' investment managers versus peer groups
and contract benchmarks;

Prepares the annual portfolio rebalancing report and recommendation to the Board.
Assists the Investment Manager in completion of asset allocation studies .

Documents and produces a report to the  detailing each asset allocation study
conducted, and updates the Boards' investment policies and guidelines accordingly; and

Assists the Investment Manager in providing operational and administrative support on
investment/financial issues for the Board.

SALARY  RANGE  [  200,000    TO   500,000   DOLLARS]

SALARY   RANGE  [  80,000    TO    150,000  DOLLARS]


Professional /  Managerial /  Technical

Professional Competencies
*resources  management
1   Select the resources which meet specific organizational goals.
  *Organizational  service
2   Understand the organizational structure & business
3   Provide services to meet the business requirements
*Understanding  of  organizational  needs
1   Interact with the project/departmental  heads to know their current & potential needs.
  *Information Services
2   Control over supply of information by selecting what is relevant & usable .
3   Review / suggest enhancements for uniformity and standardization in the format, data collection and distribution channels.
4   Ensure uninterrupted access and circulation of  informations.

*Strategic  Direction
      *Overseeing infrastructure development, housekeeping activities, sharing of resources and expertise within and across branches.
1   Design a policy for development based on organizational plans & projects.
2   Design strategies for resource  utilization.
Managerial Competencies
1   Communicate the value of information services and policies
2   Present ideas clearly & concisely, either verbally or in writing
3   Actively listen, consider and then respond.

*Flexible & Positive
1   Willingly assume different responsibilities at different points in time that respond to
  changing needs.
2   Maintain a positive attitude & help others to do the same.
3   Create partnership and alliances within (like IT, Human Resource, Learning & Development, etc)  of  the organization.
4    Use your network to learn.
*Team Work  
1   Working together cooperatively towards a common goal
2   Good understanding of team work and team building are critical for your business success.

1   Build & lead an effective information services team
2   Support & guide professional development of people working within the team
3   Set high performance standards to the team.
4   Effectively manage and develop a diverse, multifunctional workforce.

1   Effective marketing of  strategic  management   services  internally.
2   Implement and supervise  internal  marketing initiatives useing   intranets / knowledge  management  portals.  

1   Coaching is one part of a high-quality professional development plan.
2   Coaching helps to bring the best of solutions in oneself by using his knowledge and skills.

*Analytical Ability
1   Recognize pattern, draw logical conclusions, and make recommendations for action.
2   Use a well-ordered approach to solve problems and sound judgment in making decisions despite obstacles.
3   Develop actionable recommendations based on an understanding of various options.
4   Gather, utilize, and interpret relevant information when making a decision.

*Result Orientation
1   Encourage people to be result-oriented.
2   Let them know the bigger picture so that they know what they are fighting for.
Technical Competencies

* Organizing & Planning
1   Plan, prioritize & focus on what is critical.
2   Define strategic goals for self & the team to ensure long-term plans drives daily decisions & operations

*Innovation & Creativity
1   Think creatively & innovatively to offer the best of services to the  MARKET.
2   Look at the existing operations, processes & services and try to improve them to meet the dynamic changes of the MARKET requirements.
3   Always search for new ideas from all the fields of study.

-Manage changes in the organisation
-Policy, social, political and economic trends are identified and assessed for potential impact on the
-Management and work practices are assessed and revised relative to social, political and economic
trends and impacts.
-Indicators for change within the organisation are defined and monitored.
-Opportunities for positive change are identified and promoted and appropriate work is undertaken to
maximise support from staff, clients and stakeholders.

*Financial    Management
1   Budget forecasting and provisioning for new initiatives/events/goals.
2   Ensure savings, optimization and financial disciplines.
3   Analysis & reporting of expenditure pattern/trend and provide inputs to management.
*Copyright & IPR  management
1   Know the copyright & IPR issues
2   Violating the copyright & IPR issues.

Major   Sub set   High level components
Values and behaviour   Beliefs   Values, ethics & professionalism
  Analytical skills   Observations & analysis
Conceptualisation & problem solving
  Relationships   Complexity, change & diversity
Communication & presentation
Responsibility & accountability
  Personal development   Focus and time management
Self Development
Technical competence   Specialization   Knowledge and skill
  Consultative   Client focus
Project management
Consultative process
Partnering and networking
Tools and methodologies
Risk and quality management
Business Acumen   Consultant Business   Consultancy environment
Commercial aspects of assignment
  Client Business   External awareness
Business knowledge
Understanding the client
Client’s project imperative


A well-structured resume engages the reader and presents your work history in a logical and sequential order. A recruiter needs to gain a good understanding of where you worked, for how long, what was happening in each of your roles, and what skills, knowledge and experience you acquired along the way.

Recording your work experience

When documenting your work experience, always list your most recent job first and go back in reverse chronological order. For jobs you want to emphasise list the following:

*Job title
*Company name
*Dates of employment (months and years)
*Company description if organisation is not well known (see Chapter 18)

For jobs you don’t want to emphasise, only list:

*Job title
*Company name and location
*Dates of employment (months and years)

Describing your job responsibilities

Be specific, succinct and clear when listing your responsibilities. Each statement should commence with an action verb, followed by a description of the task. Action verbs usually end in ‘ed’ and describe how you performed the task or action. Here are some examples of job responsibilities with action verbs:

*Sorted [action verb] and distributed [action verb] the mail to internal staff [description of the task]
*Served [action verb] drinks and liquor to customers [description of the task]
*Facilitated [action verb] weekly induction training and conducted [action verb] orientation tours for new staff [description of the task]
*Typed [action verb] court documentation including interrogatories, subpoenas, affidavits, offers to settle, plaints and writs [description of the task]
*Logged [action verb] help desk calls and provided hardware and software support to customers [description of the task]


When you compile your responsibilities, remember to use past tense for previous experience and present tense for current roles. See how the action verbs change using different tenses.

*Previous role: Sorted and distributed the mail [past tense]
*Current role: Sort and distribute the mail [present tense]
*Previous role: Facilitated weekly induction training [past tense]
*Current role: Facilitate weekly induction training [present tense]

Consider the following statement:

*Liaised with external clients

Notice how vague the statement is. This statement doesn’t tell the reader how you liaised with the clients. Was it by phone, in person or through correspondence? What were you liaising with the clients about? Your resume needs to include specific responsibilities. Try this instead:

*Dealt with clients on the phone, listened to their legal requests, and redirected the calls to the appropriate solicitor.

When writing your responsibilities, you need to take a step back and think about what you actually do or did in your role. What were your responsibilities? What were you accountable for? Write your tasks down succinctly and try not to waffle. A recruiter wants a crystal clear understanding of your work life.

Showcasing your high achiever status

Sure, recruiters are interested in what you’ve done, but they’re more concerned with what you’ve accomplished in your past roles and how you can contribute to a business’s success in the future. Natalie Kobica, author of the article ‘Top 10 Achievements to Include on your Resume’, stresses the importance of highlighting individual achievements in your resume. In the article she lists ten achievements most employers would desire in an applicant:

*Saving money or reducing costs
*Taking on extra responsibility
*Improving a system or process
*Introducing a new system or process
*Exceeding targets or objectives
*Solving problems
*Exceeding customer expectations
*Generating income
*Improving employee morale
*Developing staff

Writing achievements can be a wee bit daunting when you first start off. Keep persevering, and you’ll get there. Be sure to list the benefits to the organisation as a result of your achievement. Did you reduce costs? Save time? Increase efficiency and productivity? Detail specifically what you did and outline what was achieved. Did you invent or design something? Did you initiate the development of something new? Did you streamline a process or procedure? Did you head a successful project? Where possible try to back up your claims with numbers, percentages and dollar amounts (without giving away company secrets) to give yourself credibility. Here are some sample achievements to modify for your own resume:

*Increased cosmetic and skin care sales by 20% [benefit] as a result of cross-selling and up-selling products to customers [achievement].
*Launched a new Web site [achievement], which educated customers on the company’s products and services and generated a 20% increase in new business [benefit].
*Cut production costs by 10% over a 12-month period [benefit] through renegotiation of supplier contracts [achievement].
*Saved the organisation $100,000 [benefit] by outsourcing the recruitment function to job placement agencies [achievement].
*Designed a file-tracking system [achievement], which increased efficiency and reduced the time spent locating missing documents [benefit].
*Decreased staff turnover by 35% [benefit] through company-wide incentive programs, employee satisfaction surveys and in-house training [achievement].
*Initiated and developed a payroll procedures manual [achievement], which improved accuracy and reduced processing errors by 50% [benefit].
*Grew the customer base from zero to 500 within two years [benefit], by cold-calling customers and launching a direct mail campaign to new and existing businesses in the area [achievement].

In some circumstances, listing a benefit for every achievement isn’t practical. In these cases, just specify the achievement. For example:

*Won ‘Telesales Award’ for excellence in customer service.

Choosing whether to emphasise a particular job

When listing your work experience, remember to emphasise and de-emphasise jobs. You need to go into large amounts of detail only for positions you want to promote and draw a recruiter’s attention to. For example, if you’ve been a dog handler for a period of time, don’t list the responsibilities and achievements for that role if you’re seriously interested in hospitality. That info sounds as useful as a pool on a winter’s day. Use common sense - many resumes I read indicate that their writers haven’t focused on what’s required.

The  resume  includes

1.competencies , which  outlines  your  skills, knowledge,abilities etc
 which  help  to  achieve results.
2.achievements, which  are your outcomes in  your job.
3.summary of   qualification,your work experience.   
4.project management,administrative, computer/other skills.
5.other  functions  skills  
6.your various  work experience – briefs
8.volunteer  activities
9.relevant courses attended
10.professional  body affiliations
11.personal  achievements/ hobbies

Please study the  sample  and  slot your  own data  under the
Listed  headings.

Key Competencies

Ten years experience designing strategic communications and marketing plans obtained from the organization and administration of several major events. Extensive project management experience gained from organizing both large and small events over a ten year period. Have designed marketing and promotional campaigns, created and implemented budgets, and led teams of paid staff and volunteers to successfully produce a large number of events.

*Ten years experience working with media (TV, radio, newspapers and magazines) to successfully promote  and market numerous events.
*Considerable experience working with a variety of constituencies/interest groups including the business, university, government, volunteer and non profit sectors.
*Strong writing, computer and internet skills gained from 10 years of producing and/or overseeing the production of promotional materials, writing press releases for media and the internet.  
*Strong internet marketing skills gained from writing and marketing online (and offline) promotional  homepages for a variety of events and designing the online marketing campaigns to achieve stated promotional objectives.


*Achieved major increase in profile of Canada's largest Scottish Festival & Highland Games (Fergus Scottish Festival) through obtaining significantly expanded and major media coverage (e.g. full page features in Toronto Star and Globe & Mail).
*Substantially increased revenues & profits at two different organizations.

*Successfully incorporated major media sponsorships into the promotional and marketing efforts of one major  organization.
*Raised the title corporate sponsorship by 50% at the Fergus Scottish Festival and oversaw a major expansion of other corporate sponsorships at this event.
  Successfully designed and substantially revised operational and marketing/promotional budgets for a variety of organizations. This resulted in profitable operations (after years of losses) at two different organizations.

  Summary of Qualifications

Communications/Public Relations and Marketing Skills

*Over 10 years experience designing communications, public relations & marketing strategies. Have worked extensively with media, including print, TV and radio. Developed many media, promotional and advertising campaigns for numerous events. Organized press conferences, public relations events, wrote press releases, designed press packages.

*Designed marketing and communications campaign (on a national scale) of Canada's largest Highland Games and Scottish Festival (the Fergus Scottish Festival & Highland Games) for two years. Developed promotional and advertising campaign for 50th
Anniversary Festival (and 51 st Annual Festival). Achieved major media coverage including full page Globe and Mail and Toronto Star features. Organized and supervised all media relations including negotiating major media sponsorships and developing promotional and advertising strategy.

*Developed marketing & public relations campaigns for 75 events and concerts in southern Ontario & Toronto over the past 10 years. Included ad buys and design of editorial public relations campaigns.


Project Management, Administrative & Computer skills

*Successfully managed and organized several major events including The Fergus Scottish Festival and Highland Games, the Hillside Music Festival, Loreena McKennitt's breakthrough (1992) national concert tour, and 75 concerts and workshops/speakers over the past 10 years. Co ordinated administrative components of these events, including working with hundreds of participants, volunteers and supervising and hiring staff. Wrote government grant applications.

*Concert/Event Production. Organized all aspects of concert production with major folk artists such as Loreena McKennitt, The Rankin Family, Ann Mortifee, Ashley Maclsaac, Natalie MacMaster, etc. Negotiated contracts, booked theatres, prepared budgets, managed media promotion & marketing including advertising & press contacts. Designed and conducted major study of marketing high¬technology products for Waterloo based technology firm.

*Proficient in the use of major computer application software such as Lotus Notes,
  Microsoft Office Professional'95 &97 (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access), FrontPage
  2000. Highly familiar with major web browsers.  Netscape & Internet Explorer. Currently
  learning Microsoft FrontPage 2000 web design software.

Research/Analysis and Strategic Planning Skills

  *Researched and wrote major analyses of several industries, including communications,
  wireless and internet industries while working for Ernst & Young. Prepared analyses for
  senior partners of E & Y's international firm. Involved accessing advanced, proprietary
  data sources (such as investment house research, i.e. Goldman Sachs analyst reports,
  and major online databases such as Dow Jones and Dialog) and analyzing current trends
  within various industries.
  *Wrote 15 studies of major communications firms in Canada. Included analyzing the
  current and forecast state of the competitive and regulatory environment of Canadian
  telecommunications industry. Estimated size, growth, and competitiveness of telecom
  market including landline and wireless subsectors.
  *Participated in high level strategic planning session with top executives from one of
  Canada's largest telecommunications firms. Involved designing and visioning a
  high speed internet strategy.

  surveys and accessing proprietary databases, strategic planning and report writing.
  Conducted new product research and marketing for a Waterloo based high technology
  firm as part of the Wilfrid Laurier University MBA Work Placement Program. Involved
  devising the strategic direction and implementation of this project while working with a
  team of four other researchers.
  Designed & wrote major strategic analysis of the Canadian Internet market for a major
  Canadian Internet provider (AOL Canada). Performed competitive analysis of Internet
  Service/Online Provider market.

Work Experience


     Business Analyst & Marketing Planner, Babcock & Wilcox, Cambridge  May 1999   present
  Business Marketing Analyst, The Princess Cinema, Waterloo (co'ntract),  March  April
  Executive Director, MJA1MJG Concert Productions, (Publicist and Concert Promoter)
  Toronto and Kitchener Waterloo, January 1989 to present. (part time)
  Business Analyst, Ernst & Young, Canadian Knowledge Centre, Toronto, February 1998
    February 1999
  Marketing Analyst, The Innovation Centre, Waterloo. January 1998   February 1998.
  Public Relations Manager and Marketing Analyst, Intel X, Cambridge. Sept.   Dec.
  1997 (contract)
  Marketing Research Analyst, Virtek Vision Inc., Waterloo, Ontario, January 1997   July
  1997 (MBA work term)
  Communications/Administration Manager, Fergus Scottish Festival & Highland Games,


4 Master of Business Administration, 1998. Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo.
4 Master of Arts, 1983. University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta
4 Honours Bachelor of Arts, 1980. Queen's University, Kingston

Volunteer Activities & Relevant Courses

Writing & Survey Design Samples


Personal Achievements and Hobbies




Careers: Business

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Leo Lingham


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