Careers: Business/Help


Dear Leolingham,
         Could you please help me in below few questions.
1.Identify and describe five perquisites that are offered to executive.
2.People are generally inflexible when confronted with change.” Do you agree or disagree? What are the implications for socialization?
3.Describe the three factors used to determine if age discrimination exists.
4.Although systematic in nature, a job description is still at best a subjective result of a job analysis.” Do you Agree or disagree? Discuss.
5.EEO guidelines have resulted in a selection process that selects in candidates rather than selecting ‘out’ applicants.” Do you agree or disagree? Discuss


I  will send  the balance  asap.

Q5.EEO guidelines have resulted in a selection process that selects in candidates rather than selecting ‘out’ applicants.” Do you agree or disagree? Discuss


This procedure is intended to give staff and management  of
organisations clear and straightforward guidance on recruiting potential employees on a fair and equitable basis. It will help you to:

*recruit and select the best candidate for every vacancy;
ensure that access to employment opportunity is based on fair, objective
and consistent criteria;
*identify discriminatory practices;
*monitor and measure the effectiveness of your recruitment practices, and
*increase your overall professionalism in the recruitment & selection  process.

This procedure complies with:

Equal Opportunities

Equal opportunities is about far more than simply making sure the employer does not fall foul of anti-discrimination legislation. Discrimination is most
simply defined as treating a person less favourably because the person belongs to a particular group.

An organisation committed to equality will want to be clear that it recognizes and welcomes diversity amongst the workforce, and that the workforce itself is
reflective of the population from which it is drawn and the geographical area in  which service is delivered.

Current law prohibits discriminating on the grounds of sex, race, colour, marital status, nationality, ethnic origins, disability and working time (i.e. part time
workers must receive equal treatment to full time staff). Employers who fall foul of the law should appreciate that the financial penalties can be unlimited. It
will be an inadequate defence for employers to say they did not mean to discriminate.

Legal requirements aside, many employers are taking a broader view and are  including statements to the effect that discrimination will not occur in relation to
age, sexual orientation, or religious groupings.

Discrimination can either be direct or indirect.

Direct discrimination occurs where the employer makes assumptions about the characteristics and abilities of a person belonging to a particular group. For  example, a business, which deliberately avoided recruiting women to work in its
maintenance squad on the assumption that women would not be strong enough, would be guilty of direct discrimination. Direct discrimination is almost always  unlawful.

Indirect discrimination can be harder to recognise. It is found in situations where employers apply conditions to various people, but these have a disproportionate effect on members of a particular group. For example it would
be likely be indirect discrimination were an employer to insist that support for staff training costs is only to be available to employees with ten years unbroken service. Again taking women as an example, it could be argued that they would
be less likely to be able to achieve this given their greater likelihood to take career breaks to have and raise children.

In specific circumstances the employer may be able to justify indirect  discrimination so as to make it lawful, as long as the employer can satisfy two tests:
That there was a solid reason for the discriminatory criteria applied
That the reason the criteria were introduced was not related to sex or race of the employee concerned.
These tests are interpreted strictly and employers should avoid any attempt to construct circumstances in order to justify discrimination that has occurred.

Sex discrimination law protects both men and women and the scope of legislation is often interpreted fairly widely. Any less favourable treatment, which cannot be justified, on grounds of sex is discriminatory and thus unlawful.
A few obvious exceptions, known as .Genuine Occupational Qualifications. Are written into this legislation to cover situation where consideration of decency
and privacy might arise. For example care staff in single sex hostels offering high-level support to residents may need to be drawn from members of the same
sex. Again these criteria are very tightly enforced and should not be introduced  frivolously in order to get round discrimination claims.

Whilst protecting married people against discrimination,  law does not offer  similar protection to single persons. Notwithstanding this the  Equal
Treatment Directive does include single people and it would therefore be good practice for employers to treat single people similarly and ensure, for example, that any benefits of employment available to spouses are similarly open to

Protection under legislation covers all racial groups and so white people are afforded the same cover as those from black, Asian and other groups. Both direct and indirect discrimination is covered under this legislation and both are
prohibited with racial harassment being seen as direct discrimination.
Some aspects of indirect discriminatory practice may be, for example, an employer insisting on a dress code that is at odds with dress requirements of a group covered such as Sikhs and the wearing of headgear.

This more recent piece of legislation makes it unlawful to discriminate against people with disabilities. In an employment context it only applies to
organisations with 15 or more staff.
Under the legislation disability is defined as a physical or mental impairment, which has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on a person.s normal dayto- day activities. Substantial is taken to mean more than trivial or minor, and
long term means having lasted or likely to last 12 months or more.
Disability discrimination law differs from Race and Sex in that there is no use of the two concepts of direct and indirect discrimination. Instead it is unlawful
to offer less favourable treatment to disabled people . unless it can be justified.
There also falls upon employers a duty to consider making reasonable adjustments in order to assist people with disabilities gain equal access to all
employment benefits that are available to the general body of staff.

Equal opportunities complaints most commonly arise at the recruitment stage.
However organisation should ensure that a framework of equal opportunity is  actively designed into all its employment policies and that commitment to such
principles is featured in the Job Descriptions of its senior managers.
There are three statutory bodies that are happy to offer advice to employers:
The Equal Opportunities Commission
The Commission for Racial Equality
The Disability Rights Commission

EEO   is  a  law.
EEO   is  a  law, under  which ,  it is illegal to discriminate in any aspect of employment, including:
•   hiring and firing;
•   compensation, assignment, or classification of employees;
•   transfer, promotion, layoff, or recall;
•   job advertisements;
•   recruitment;
•   testing;
•   use of company facilities;
•   training and apprenticeship programs;
•   fringe benefits;
•   pay, retirement plans, and disability leave; or
•   other terms and conditions of employment.
Discriminatory practices under these laws also include:
•   harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, disability, or age;
•   retaliation against an individual for filing a charge of discrimination, participating in an investigation, or opposing discriminatory practices;
•   employment decisions based on stereotypes or assumptions about the abilities, traits, or performance of individuals of a certain sex, race, age, religion, or ethnic group, or individuals with disabilities; and
•   denying employment opportunities to a person because of marriage to, or association with, an individual of a particular race, religion, national origin, or an individual with a disability. Title VII also prohibits discrimination because of participation in schools or places of worship associated with a particular racial, ethnic, or religious group.
Employers are required to post notices to all employees advising them of their rights under the laws EEOC enforces and their right to be free from retaliation. Such notices must be accessible, as needed, to persons with visual or other disabilities that affect reading.
Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). Motivation for affirmative action policies is to redress the effects of past discrimination and to encourage public institutions such as universities, hospitals and police forces to be more representative of the population.
This is commonly achieved through targeted recruitment programs, by preferential treatment given to applicants from socio-politically disadvantaged groups and in some cases through the use of quotas.

Q4) “Although systematic in nature, a job description is still at best a subjective result of a job analysis.” Do you Agree or disagree? Discuss.

This  is  not  entirely  true.  
-the  job  analysis  is  a  thorough  study  of  the  job  and its  factors.
-the  job  description  is  the   product  of  the  job analysis.
-if  the  factors  in the  job situation  changes, then  the  job  description should  change.

JOB ANALYSIS  analyses  the  job  in  the  situation,
as  it  stands.




Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements
and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.

The Job; not the person
An important concept of Job Analysis is that the analysis is conducted of the Job, not the person. While Job Analysis data may be collected from incumbents through interviews or questionnaires, the product of the analysis is a description or specifications of the job, not a description of the person.

Purpose of Job Analysis
The purpose of Job Analysis is to establish and document the 'job relatedness' .

Job Analysis is a process to identify and determine in detail the particular job duties and requirements and the relative importance of these duties for a given job. Job Analysis is a process where judgements are made about data collected on a job.
There are two key elements of a job analysis:

1. Identification of major job requirements[MJR] , which are the most important duties and responsibilities of the position to be filled. They are the main purpose or primary reasons the position exists. The primary source of MJRs is the most current, official position description.

2. Identification of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) required to accomplish each MJR and the quality level and amount of the KSAs needed.

The Occupational Classification System manual was created for Bureau of  STATISTICS field economists to help ensure correct occupational matches when collecting compensation data. Available to the public, this manual allows the user to lookup job descriptions for occupations and is used by field economists in the classification of thousands of occupations.
Interview Methods
Structured Interviews A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:
•   charting a job-holder's sequence of activities in performance
•   an inventory or questionnaire may be used
Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.
A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst.

Interview Outcomes
Interviewing is a flexible method for all levels and types of job. An interview may focus on what a hypothetical job might involve.
Interviews generate descriptive data and enable job-holders to interpret their activities. A good interviewer can probe sensitive areas in more depth. Structured questionnaires cannot easily do this. Jobholders can give overviews of their work and offer their perceptions and feelings about their job and the environment. Rigid questionnaires tend to be less effective where the more affective aspects of work are concerned.
However information from different interviews can be
•   hard to bring together
•   there is potential for interviewer bias
•   certain areas of the work may fail to be picked up
•   an interview may stress one area and neglect others.
•   there are problems in interpretation and analysis with the possibility of distorted impressions
•   the subjectivity of the data captured needs to be considered
Interviewing as the sole method of job analysis in any particular project has disadvantages. Interviews are time consuming and training is needed. Co-counselling may remove the analyst and enable jobholders to discuss work between themselves. Through inexperience however they may miss items and there is the natural problem of people not establishing and maintaining rapport with each other during an interview.
Methods of Job Analysis
Several methods exist that may be used individually or in combination. These include:
•   review of  job classification  systems
•   incumbent  interview
•   supervisor/direct boss interviews
•   expert panels  [ direct boss/HRM/ others]
•   structured questionnaires
•   task inventories
•   check lists
•   open-ended questionnaires
•   job  observations
•   incumbent work logs

A typical method of Job Analysis would be to give the incumbent a simple questionnaire to identify job duties, responsibilities, equipment used, work relationships, and work environment. The completed questionnaire would then be used to assist the Job Analyst who would then conduct an interview of the incumbent(s). A draft of the identified job duties, responsibilities, equipment, relationships, and work environment would be reviewed with the supervisor for accuracy. The Job Analyst would then prepare a job description and/or job specifications.
The method that you may use in Job Analysis will depend on practical concerns such as type of job, number of jobs, number of incumbents, and location of jobs.
What Aspects of a Job Are Analyzed?
Job Analysis should collect information on the following areas:
•   Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc.
•   Environment This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives.
•   Tools and Equipment Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis.
•   Relationships Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people.
•   Requirements The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job. While an incumbent may have higher KSA's than those required for the job, a Job Analysis typically only states the minimum requirements to perform the job.
•   What does or should the person do?
•   What knowledge, skill, and abilities does it take to perform this job?
•   What is the result of the person performing the job?
•   How does this job fit in with other jobs in the organization?

The process may seek to obtain information about the:
•   work
•   worker
•   context within which the job exists


Worker Functions. The relationship of the worker to data, people, and things.
Work Fields. The techniques used to complete the tasks of the job. Over 100 such fields have been identified. This descriptor also includes the machines, tools, equipment, and work aids that are used in the job.
Materials, Products, Subject Matter, and/or Services. The outcomes of the job or the purpose of performing the job.
Worker Traits. The aptitudes, educational and vocational training, and personal traits required of the worker.
Physical Demands. Job requirements such as strength, observation, and talking. This descriptor also includes the physical environment of the work.
•   skills
•   abilities
•   knowledge
•   tasks
•   work activities
•   work context
•   experience levels required
•   job interests
•   work values/needs

There are as many different formats for job descriptions as there are jobs, but there are some basic pieces of information that most job descriptions have. Include them in yours, if you feel they are appropriate.
•   Job  Scope . This section should contain a brief summary of the information found in more detail elsewhere in the description. A summary shouldn't be more than a few sentences long and should explain the main purposes and functions of the job.
•   Detailed duties and responsibilities. This is a more detailed description of the duties involved and separates the essential functions of the job from the incidental job functions for purposes of the ADA.
•   Accountabilities. A  list  of  outcomes,  the  position  is  responsible  for.
•   Skills required to perform the job. This can include compensable factors such as education, experience, and abilities.
•   Importance of job duties and tasks. Ranking the duties from most important to least important is a good way to convey this information since the task that consumes the most time is not necessarily the most important task. You can rank on a scale of one to 10, for example.
•   When and how often the tasks are performed. You might want to mention that certain tasks are only done once a month, quarter, year etc.
•   Job environment. Job environments can impact significantly on workers' motivation and job satisfaction. For example, it's a good idea to include in job descriptions factors like the fact that the work is done off-premises, or mention the existence of hazards, noises, physical proximity of other employees, and opportunities to communicate with other employees. Including these factors in the job description helps job applicants better understand the requirements of the job and helps you select the best candidate for the position.
•   Working  Relationship. should  include  1] direct reporting  2] dotted  line communication 3]others.
•   JOB  Competencies.
•   JOB'S   KRA  [ Key  responsible  areas]
•   JOB'S  KPA  [ Key  performance  areas]
•   JOB'S  KPI   [ Key  performance  indicators]

Q3.Describe the three factors used to determine if age discrimination exists.

1.Implicit ageism
Implicit ageism is the term used to refer to the implicit or unconscious thoughts, feelings, and behaviors one has about older or younger people. These may be a mixture of positive and negative thoughts and feelings, but that they “tend to be mostly negative.”
One way that implicit or explicit ageism may manifest is through the use of patronizing language with older or younger people. The term "patronizing language" specifically describes two negative methods of communication: overaccommodation, which consists of a person being excessively courteous and speaking simple and short sentences very loudly and slowly to an older or younger person, with an exaggerated tone and high pitch; and baby talk, which involves practically the same uncomplicated speech with an exaggerated pitch and tone that one uses when talking to a baby, differing in the content of the speech. These tend to downplay the serious and thoughtful contributions of older or younger persons to society, while reinforcing a negative image of them as dependent people with deficiencies in intellect, cognitive and physical performance, and other areas required for autonomous, daily functioning. People who engage in this type of speech treat older members of society as if they have regressed to an infantile state, or treat younger members of society as if they have never progressed beyond an infantile state.

2.Ageist stereotyping
Ageist stereotyping is a tool of cognition which involves categorizing into groups and attributing characteristics to these groups. Stereotypes are necessary for processing huge volumes of information which would otherwise overload a person, and they are often based on a "grain of truth" (for example, the association between aging and ill health). However, they cause harm when the content of the stereotype is incorrect with respect to most of the group or where a stereotype is so strongly held that it overrides evidence which shows that an individual does not conform to it. Stereotypes are used to interpret the world around us. For example, age-based stereotypes prime one to draw very different conclusions when one sees an older and a younger adult with, say, back pain or a limp. One might well assume that the younger person’s condition is temporary and treatable, following an accident, while the older person’s condition is chronic and less susceptible to intervention. On average, this might be true, but plenty of older people have accidents and recover quickly. This assumption may have no consequence if one makes it in the blink of an eye as one is passing someone in the street, but if it is held by a health professional offering treatment or managers thinking about occupational health, it could inappropriately influence their actions and lead to age-related discrimination. Another example is when people are rude to children because of their high pitched voice, even if they are kind and courteous.
Ageist prejudice
Ageist prejudice is a type of emotion which is often linked to the cognitive process of stereotyping. It can involve the expression of derogatory attitudes, which may then lead to the use of discriminatory behavior. Where older contestants were rejected in the belief that they were poor performers, this could well be the result of stereotyping. But older people were also voted for at the stage in the game where it made sense to target the best performers. This can only be explained by a subconscious emotional reaction to older people; in this case, the prejudice took the form of distaste and a desire to exclude oneself from the company of older people.

3.Benevolent prejudice
Stereotyping and prejudice against different groups in society does not take the same form. Age-based prejudice and stereotyping usually involves older people being pitied, marginalized, or patronized. This is described as "benevolent prejudice" because the tendency to pity is linked to seeing older people as "friendly" but "incompetent." This is similar to the prejudice most often directed against women and disabled people.

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Leo Lingham


I can answer the following -career opportunities -planning a career -development plans for career -self development needs -training plans for individuals -growth plans for individuals.

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