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Question
please help me for the mba assignment in marketing management

1.1. Write on various marketing environment like economic, technological, sociocultural,
demographic, political, legal and competitive.
2. Discuss the various steps involved in media planning. When and why media
planning assumes relevance and significance for a marketer?

Answer
Question:   please help me for the mba assignment in marketing management

1.1. Write on various marketing environment like economic, technological, sociocultural,
demographic, political, legal and competitive.
successful marketing management

THE  NECESSARY  TASKS  ARE
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE  MACRO  ENVIRONMENT.  
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE  INDUSTRY
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE  COMPETITION
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE  INTERNAL  ENVIRONENT
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE   RESOURCES  REQUIREMENT
-SOUND  UNDERSTANDING  OF  THE  POLICIES  REQUIRED.
ETC   ETC
========================================
A  successful  marketing  manager  manages  effectively   the  marketing  and  sales  through  management  of
-demographic  forces
-physical  forces
-economic  forces
-societal forces
-political  forces
-------------------------------------
-marketing  analysis
-marketing  planning
-marketing  implementation
-marketing  control
--------------------------------------------
-product
-price
-promotion
-distribution
KNOWLEDGE  OF THE MARKETING JOB  SCOPE
Primary objective

Develop, direct and control the sales and marketing business strategies and activities of the organisation to achieve revenues, sales and profit targets.

Specific accountabillitles

Direct the activities of sales and marketing for the achievement of short and long term business objectives, increased profit, and market control.

Establish and co ordinate the sales and marketing objectives, policies and programmes within the context of the overall corporate plan and, where appropriate, recommend standards and set targets and quotas.

Prepare, or arrange for preparation of the budgets, reports and forecasts and ensure they are presented in a timely manner to the Chief Executive.

Appraise the activities of the staff according to overall sales and marketing strategies. Monitor and evaluate the performance, and the efficiency of staff and procedures.

Co ordinate subordinate staff to optimise the use of human and material resources to achieve goals. Consult with subordinate staff and review recommendations and reports.

Direct the preparation of operational matters including market research, advertising, promotion, distribution, pricing and selling.

Direct sales activities by setting product mix, geographical sales areas and customer service standards.

Control and moriitor sales methods, key customer strategies and arrangements by recommending prices and credit arrangements.

Direct and control marketing by planning and running advertising campaigns and promotional activities, product management and market analysis and research.

Monitor customer service, invoicing, payments and administration costs.

Direct the development of initiatives such as new products, new marketing techniques, new advertising campaigns, incentive bonus schemes and the dropping of unprofitable products.

Maintain necessary contact with major suppliers, key customers, industry associations and government representatives to achieve the objectives of the division.

Select, or approve the selection and training of senior staff. Establish lines of control and delegate responsibilities to staff.

Ensure all the activities of the sales and marketing group comply with relevant Acts, legal demands and ethical standards.

==============================================
SOUND  UNDERSTANDING OF THE  MARKETING   SUBFIELDS

AS  SHOWN  BELOW:


*Marketing  Concept.
*Importance  of  Marketing  to  Strategic  Management  and the  Organization  Success.
*  strategic  marketing management  
*Understanding  the Marketing  and  Competitors.
*  marketing research.
*market  forecast.
*The  importance  of  knowing Buyer  Behavior.
 *consumer  behavior
 *organizational  buyer  behavior.
*Marketing Strategy
*Strategic market Planning
*Market  Development.
*marketing  environments
*marketing  strategies
* marketing  planning.
*TRADE  MARKETING MANAGEMENT
*Marketing  Plan.
*developing  a  marketing  plan.
*executing/implementing   a  marketing plan.
*market  segmentation
*market  targeting.
*market  positioning.
*product  marketing
*Channel  marketing
*New  Product  Development  & Strategy.
*new  product development  process.
*new  product  commercialization.
*Product Pricing Considerations and Approaches.
*pricing  principles.
*pricing  strategy
*Marketing  Logistics  
*marketing  channels.
*physical  distribution.
*Marketing  Decision Making
*Marketing  Mix.
*promotions
*selling
*publicity
*online  marketing
*direct  marketing.
*marketing  communication
*branding
*advertising
*telemarketing
*test  marketing
*product planning
*sales development
*sales  planning
*sales  organization
*trade marketing
*merchandising
*retail  marketing
*customer servicing
*SELF SERVICE  MARKETING




The market environment is a term that is used to collectively identify all the elements that have some impact on the actual performance of a market. This includes events and factors that occur within the context of the market itself and also any elements that are based outside the market. The idea behind defining the market environment is to understand what forces are exerting some amount of influence in the marketplace and understand why and how a market reacts to those forces in certain ways.
In understanding the market environment, it is important to consider varying factors that shape the actual movement of the market. Typically, these factors are identified as being either microenvironment or macroenvironment in type and nature. While considering each factor in turn, the process also calls for understanding how all factors work in tandem to create the end effect on the marketplace.
The microenvironment aspects of the market environment typically focus on internal elements related to companies and how they perform in the marketplace. Factors like the corporate structure and organization, the distribution of resources in the operation, and even the policies and procedures that govern interaction between owners, managers and employees are considered as part of this assessment. Along with the characteristics and day-to-asspociated with the pday operational processes of the company, factors such as the working relationships with vendor partners, comparisons with competitors, and the general public perception of the company and its products will all play a role in the current status of the market environment.

Along with microenvironment factors to consider, there are also factors that are classified as macroenvironment. Here, the focus is on such issues as the political climate in which the products are produced and offered for sale, governmental legislation that affects how goods are produced and sold, and even the impact of current economic conditions on the ability of the company to remain competitive. The concept of a macroenvironmental factor also has to do with the level of consumer confidence that the products enjoy and how that confidence translates into sales.
Understanding the market environment as it relates to a given company requires not only identifying all known factors but also having some sense of how those factors blend together to create the setting in which the company must operate. By having an idea of how all known factors come together to create today’s business climate, it is easier to consider the potential for different market movements in the future, based on the ebb and flow of the influence of different elements. By accurately assessing where the market environment stands today and using that information to project where the market is going tomorrow, the business can make changes in procedures, production levels, or even marketing strategies in order to meet those future challenges and ultimately continue to generate an acceptable level of revenue.

DOMESTIC   
Cultural and Social Factors
Cultural and social factors influence the type of customers you target, the range of products you can offer, and the way you communicate with the market. Cultural and social influences shape a customer’s preferences and ways of doing business, so it is important to understand and respond to the factors. Certain colors, for example, have positive or negative significance for different cultural groups, so your products and packaging must reflect those preferences.
Political and Regulatory Environment
Your marketing strategy must take account of the domestic political and regulatory environment. Politicians and regulators may wish to impose restrictions on certain industries to protect consumers, for example. They may take action to increase competition, potentially opening up your existing market to new competitors. Your products must comply with any health, safety and other type of legislation that relates to your industry.
Economic Conditions
Prevailing economic conditions in the country have a direct impact on your marketing program. During a recession, for example, consumers and businesses have less to spend, reducing demand for many types of products and services. Products that offer high value for the price will have a greater appeal during difficult economic conditions. Economic prosperity provides a better environment for marketing luxury goods or higher-priced versions of your product range.
Competition
The level of competition in your marketplace influences your marketing strategy and tactics. If you face strong competition in one sector, you can try to increase your share by improving the price or performance of your products. Alternatively, you may find it easier to withdraw from a highly-competitive sector and focus on other sectors where you have a stronger competitive advantage.
Media
The media infrastructure in the domestic market determines your options for communicating with customers and prospects. Depending on your product and your target audience, you will benefit from a wide choice of magazines, newspapers, and television and radio stations, enabling you to select the media that reach the greatest number of prospects at the lowest cost.
Logistics
To reach your domestic customers, you need a well-developed logistics infrastructure. A strong network of retailers or distributors is important if you market your products through indirect channels. If you market your products throughout the country, a national logistics infrastructure of warehouses, distributors, and transport operators will help you to access your market easily.
Technology
The technology infrastructure influences the domestic marketing environment in a number of ways. It can provide an important communication channel, enabling you to market your products through a website or via email. If you supply digital products or services, you can use the Internet to distribute them.
Internal environment: the internal environment is concerned with the controllable variables. Controllable variables are categorized into two groups, they are; the strategy variables and unmarketable variables. External environment: the external environment is concerned with the uncontrollable variables. These variables are called uncontrollable because the marketing manager cannot directly control any of the elements. The marketing manager is left with the option of adapting to the environment by prompt observation, analysis and forecasting of these environmental factors. The external environment can further be divided into two components, the micro environment and the macro environment.
Micro environment:
The elements that fall under the micro environment consist of forces or factors in the firm's immediate environment that affect the firm's capability to perform effectively in the market place. These forces are suppliers, distributors, customers and competitors. Let us discuss each of the variables in details.
Suppliers:
Suppliers are business customers who provide goods and services to other business organizations for resale or for productions of other goods. The behavior of certain forces in the suppliers can affect the performance of the buying organization positively or negatively. The critical factors here are the number of suppliers and the volume of suppliers to the industry. An audit of the suppliers will enable us to appreciate their strength and bargaining power, which the suppliers hold over the industry as a whole. The answers to the issues concerned have the potentials to affect the capability of firms in the industry to effectively deliver need-satisfying goods and/ or services. The trend today is that buyers attempt to persuade the supplier to provide exactly what the firms want. This process is known as "reverse marketing".
Customers:
Customers are those who buy goods and/ or services produced by the company. In a purchase chain, different people play significant roles before a purchase decision is made. The various influences must be understood. The customer may be the consumer of the products where he/she is the user. The critical factor here is that needs and wants of consumers are not static. They are fast changing. The changes in the preferences of the consumer create opportunities and threats in the market. The changes called for the marshaling of separate strategy to either fit into windows of opportunities or survive the threats in the market. A good knowledge of consumers' behavior will facilitate the design and production of goods and services that the customers need and want, and not what they are able to produce.
Competitor:
A competitor is a firm operating in the same industry or market with another firm. The consideration here is that, Firm A produces a substitute to that of firm B (industrial approach) or firm A and firm B seeks to satisfy the same customer need (market approach.


•   3. Elements of the Marketing Environment Internal / organisational environment Operational/micro External / Macro

Internal environment status Corporate Culture Staff Relationships Resource Constraints Internal Environment Behavior in dealing with the environment
Staff Relationships Relationship among the staff affects the operations of the organisation Management should develop a conducive environment to develop staff relationships Employees should not convey a negative image of the organisation to external sources
Staff members The message that is conveyed by staff to others ( third parties) have a big impact rather than the paid advertisements of the organisation Members of the public consider staff members as the authoritative and they are far more likely to believe what staff members say Therefore an organization must do its internal marketing well to inform the company’s policies, and obtain the commitment and loyalty of the staff Staff is paid salaries by the organisation and staff should act to safeguard the organisation’s interest for their own benefit too.
Organizational Structure An organisation in general will have two structures Formal Structure ( As per the organizational charts who is on the top of the hierarchy, what are the functional departments and who heads them and what they do and how many positions are under them, who is responsible for what and whom is under whom)
Informal structure It cannot be shown on an organisational structure formally but there are many informal structures in organisations Friendships, alliances among staff members who go in the bus or train together, who take lunch together, whose wives or family members are friends, who are from the same town or village etc. These relationships are very strong and it could influence for positive and negative aspects in an organisation
Corporate culture Culture is a set of shared values, rules, and perceptions in a given society. There are such cultures in organisations too This is called in a company “ the way we do things around here” It has a powerful influence on the actions and behaviors of the members of the staff It is not an easy task to change the organizations culture if it is not conducive for an efficient operation
Resource Constraints All organisations operate within a limited amount of resources Men. Material, Money, Machines and Technology are the limiting resources Organisation should use systems where they could get the maximum out of the existing resources The effective and efficient way of adopting resources is the key to success.
Micro Environment Micro environment is much closer to the marketer than the macro environment It directly deals with the operational environment It comprises of Suppliers Intermediaries Competitors- Direct and Indirect Customers of a business/marketer Publics
Operational/ Micro Environment Micro Environment Intermediaries Competitors Suppliers Customers Publics
Suppliers Suppliers are called the “ Supply Chain” They could be the suppliers of all the materials and utilities to the marketer to make its value proposition ( product) to the market – machines and plants, raw materials, components, stationery, electricity, water, gas, other services, advertising agencies, consultancies, etc Company cannot survive without suppliers Marketers should study about the suppliers capacity, problems to have a good flow of supplies
Intermediaries Marketing intermediaries- transport and logistics, warehousing, dealers, distributors, wholesale and retail network ( more than 160,000 retail shops for FMCGs) The capacity and the efficiency of the intermediaries are very important for a marketer to serve its customers eg. Walls case They not only distribute but also stock, advertise, provide credit, after sales services, break the bulk, provide information
Competitors Marketer is not alone in the market. Every action of the marketer has a reaction from the competitors Knowing the competitors, their capacity, ability, future moves, structure and operational systems, objectives, strategies and tactics, will provide so much of ammunition to the marketer to face the challenges in the market place. Simply a SWOT Analysis of Competitors is needed
Customers Customers are the most important element in the micro environment They can be individuals or organizations A persons who makes the decision to buy the product is called the customer and the person who consumes the product is called the consumer When customer and the consumer are different the marketer have to consider the needs of both Many times customer and the consumer would be the same. Marketer should study the constantly changing needs of the customer and fine tune his value proposition accordingly to satisfy/delight the customer.
Publics Publics is any group that has an actual or potential impact on an organisation’s ability to arrive at its objectives Financial Publics- share holders, banks and other finance companies Local Publics- Local groups and individuals Media Publics- newspapers, magazines, radio and TV Government Publics- all govt rules and regulations General Publics- General publics attitude towards companies operations and products
Macro (External) Environment External environment is the elements in the periphery of the business. These elements are in the larger picture and the marketer has no control over them These elements are very important and have a tremendous influence on the operations of the marketer Marketer has to take all these factors in to consideration
A list of main External Environment factors (PESTEEL) Political Economic Social and cultural Technological Ecological Ethical Legal
Political and Legal Environment Ploitical Political stability War and Peace Internal conflicts and struggles Strikes and stoppage of work Globalisation and opening up of markets Political affiliation and support to governments
Economic Environment General economic condition of the world and the country Income distribution - Employment levels and its structure Prices and inflation Boom and recession Balance of trade – surplus / deficit Exchange rate and fluctuation Stock market Banking and Credit Import and export duties Saving and investment
Social and Cultural Environment Society consists of large group of people with shared customs and laws Culture consists of art, thought, and customs, religions, practices of a society at any given time Any society will have its own culture. May be unique or shared or mixed with other cultures. Peoples relationships and behavior will have a major influence of the societies beliefs, values and norms There could be different cultural groups within a society
Some of the socio cultural factors can be listed as follows Demographic factors- population structure- age, family size, ethnicity, income, Social Cultural behaviors- languages, religious beliefs, mythology, gender roles, gift giving habits, Social responsibility and ethics The impact of war Role of women in society Attitudes towards credit Concern about health
The socio- cultural affect will influence peoples attitudes towards buying patterns, living patterns, dress codes, fashion, sports, savings, social behaviors, music, credit, marriage, and many areas of life styles. Marketers have to be aware of them to understand the customers and their behavior
Technological Technology is changing always Marketers have to be vigilant about it and adapt to change There are so many innovations taking place in the world. Some innovations make products and processors improve dynamically and some times they even replaces the old products and make them obsolete
Ecological Environment People have considered planet as a bundle of raw materials that could be used to satisfy the needs of the current generation That has made the exploitation of resources without any barriers As a result we have lost lot of resources and the bio diversity Main ecological issues are: Resource Depletion- Pollution Concerns- Health Related Concerns Therefore the marketers have to be very careful of the natural environment in their marketing activities such as production processors, usage, consumption and disposal Marketers should have an environment friendly attitude
Ethical Environment Ethics are moral principles that define right or wrong behavior in marketing Laws are promulgated to safeguard most basic ethics However, there are many other ethics that marketers should adhere to although they are not in existence in the form of law Marketers should have their own self regulatory ethical standards if they are to become good corporate citizens of the society
Some important ethical issues Product issues : honest claims about effects of products, use non hazadous raw material and component, additives, declare what is used, indicate nutritious values ( specially food items) and side effects ( specially drugs) Pricing issues : price fixing among competitors, predatory pricing ( pricing below cost to win over competitors) hiding or not divulging the operational cost or price of consumables, charging very high prices
Promotional issues ; deceptive or misleading advertising, bribery and commissions, unfair advertising, using sex excessively as a strategy in advertising Place issues : blocking distribution channels, extending payment of credit beyond the agreed terms, using underworld elements to obtain orders and block competition
Legal Criminal and Civil laws will govern many facets of society Especially marketers have to obey and respect them Commercial laws, Company laws employment laws, health and safety laws, Intellectual Property laws, Environment laws, directly affect the marketers, Consumer Protection Laws, Other Religious and Civil Society conventions, rights groups and practices also affect the operation of businesses.
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2. Discuss the various steps involved in media planning. When and why media
planning assumes relevance and significance for a marketer?
Options:
The word Media came from the Latin word "Middle". Media carry message to or from a targeted audience and can add meaning to the message.

Media Planning, in advertising, is a series of decisions involving the delivery of message to the targeted audience. Media Plan, is the plan that details the usage of media in an advertising campaignincluding costs, running dates, markets, reach, frequency, rationales, and strategies.

Steps in Development of Media Plan
1. Market Analysis
Every media plan begins with the market analysis or environmental analysis.Complete review of internal and external factors is required to be done. At this stage media planner try to identify answers of the following questions:
•   Who is the target audience?
•   What internal and external factors may influence the media plan?
•   Where and when to focus the advertising efforts?
The target audience can be classified in terms of age, sex, income, occupation, and other variables. The classification of target audience helps media planner  to understand the media consumption habit, and accordingly choose the most appropriate media or media mix.

2. Establishing Media Objective
Media objectives describes what you want the media plan to accomplish. There are five key media objectives that a advertiser or media planner has to consider - reach, frequency, continuity, cost, and weight.
1.   Reach - Reach refers to the number of people that will be exposed to to a media vehicle at least once during a given period of time.
2.   Frequency - Frequency refers to the average number of times an individual within target audience is exposed to a media vehicle during a given period of time.
3.   Continuity - It refers to the pattern of advertisements in a media schedule. Continuity alternatives are as follows:
•   Continuous: Strategy of running campaign evenly over a period of time.
•   Pulsing: Strategy of running campaign steadily over a period of time with intermittent increase in advertising at certain intervals, as during festivals or special occasions like Olympics or World-Cup.
•   Discontinuous: Strategy of advertising heavily only at certain intervals, and no advertising in the interim period, as in case of seasonal products.
4.   Cost - It refers to the cost of different media
5.   Weight - Weight refers to total advertising required during a particular period.
3. Determining Media Strategies
Media strategy is determined considering the following:
1.   Media Mix - From the wide variety of media vehicles, the advertiser can employ one vehicle or a mix suitable vehicles.
2.   Target Market
3.   Scheduling - It shows the number of advertisements, size of advertisements, and time on which advertisements to appear.
•   Seasonal Pulse: Seasonal products like cold creams follows this scheduling.
•   Steady Pulse: According to this scheduling one ad is shown over a period of time, say one ad per week or one ad per month.
•   Periodic Pulse: A regular pattern is followed in such scheduling, as in case of consumer durable, and non durable.
•   Erratic Pulse: No regular pattern is followed in such scheduling.
•   Start-up Pulse: Such scheduling is followed during a new campaign or a launch of anew product.
•   Promotional Pulse: It is for short time, only for a promotional period.
4.   Reach and frequency
5.   Creative Aspects - Creativity in ad campaigns decides the success of the product, but to implement this creativity  firm must employ a media that supports such a strategy.
6.   Flexibility -  An effective media strategy requires a degree of flexibility.
7.   Budget Considerations - In determining media strategy cost must be estimated and budget must be considered.
8.   Media Selection - It covers two broad decisions - selection of media class, and selection of media vehicle within media class.
4. Implementation of Media Plan
The implementation of media plan requires media buying. Media Buying refers to buying time and space in the selected media. Following are the steps in media buying:
•   Collection of information: Media buying requires sufficient information regarding nature of target audience, nature of target market, etc.
•   Selection of Media/Media Mix: Considering the collected information and ad-budget, media or media mix is selected which suits the requirements of both - target audience and advertiser.
•   Negotiation: Price of media is negotiated to procure media at the lowest possible price.
•   Issuing Ad - copy to media: Ad-copy is issued to the media for broadcast or telecast
•   Monitoring performance of Media: Advertiser has to monitor whether the telecast or broadcast of ad is done properly as decided.
•   Payment - Finally, it is the responsibility of advertiser to make payment of media bills on time.
5. Evaluation and Follow-up
Evaluation is essential to assess the performance of any activity. Two factors are important in evaluation of media plan:
•   How successful were the strategies in achieving media objectives?
•   Was the media plan successful in accomplishing advertising objective?
Successful strategies help build confidence and serve as reference for developing media strategies in future, and failure is thoroughly analysed to avoid mistakes in future.
•   




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MEDIA  PLANNING

Media Objectives
• REACH: The total # of people or households
exposed to an ad schedule during a given time
period (usually 4 weeks); expressed as a % of the
total potentially exposed
Ex. A radio station has 60,000 potential listeners
and 20,000 hear a commercial
20,000/60,000 = 33% or 33
FREQUENCY: # of exposures to the same message
each HH supposedly receives
AVG. FREQUENCY: Total exposures for all HH/ #
people reached
Ex. 100,000 people are potentially exposed to an
advertising message. If 30,000 HH see an ad 5X
and 20,000 HH see an ad 6X, then:
Avg FREQ = (30,000 x 5 ) + (20,000 x 6)
50,000
= 5.4
IMPRESSIONS: Same as total exposures
GRPs: Gross Rating Points (the weight of
the media schedule)
GRP = REACH x FREQUENCY
(reach is expressed as a %)
Ex. 100,000 people are potentially exposed to 10
ads and 50,000 people see the ads on the avg. of
5.4 times
50,000/100,000 X 5.4
= 50 X 5.4 = 270 GRPs
1000 GRPs:
Reach X Frequency
50 X 20 = 1000 100 X 10 = 1000
20 X 50 = 1000 33.3 X 33.3 = 1000
When should

1000 GRPs:
Reach X Frequency
50 X 20 = 1000 100 X 10 = 1000
20 X 50 = 1000 33.3 X 33.3 = 1000
When should you go for greater reach?
When should you go for greater frequency?
GREATER REACH:
• Message is simple and easily understood
• Goal is to generate awareness
• Goal is to target new consumers
• New product aimed at large, broad audience
• Product is newsworthy
GREATER FREQUENCY:
• Goal is comprehension or retention
• Message is more complex
• Target audience is narrowly defined
• Competitor is using high frequency
• Direct response is needed
• Need action in a limited time
• Brand isn’t distinctive
CONTINUITY: Length of time a media schedule
will run and whether it will be continuous or
periodic
Continuity Patterns:
Continuous – spreading your advertising out
evenly throughout the campaign
Flighting – alternating periods of
advertising and then no advertising
Pulsing – varying the intensity of advertising
throughout the campaign (combines the two
above)
Continuous Flighting Pulsing
Jan. $
Continuous Flighting Pulsing
Jan. $1 $2 $1.50
Feb. $1 0 $ .50
Mar. $1 $2 $1.50
Apr. $1 0 $ .50
May $1 $2 $1.50
June $1 0 $ .50
Total $6 $6 $6
Consider Media Choices in
Terms of:
• Reach needed
• Selectivity – geographic and audience
• Flexibility – lead time needed
• Impact
• Frequency possibilities
• Efficiency – CPM, TCPM, CPRP
• Competitors’ Strategy
Cost Considerations
GOAL: Maximize exposure to the greatest
number of
Cost Considerations
GOAL: Maximize exposure to the greatest
number of the right people at the
lowest possible cost
CPM (Magazines and Newspapers)
- evaluation of cost relative to the audience reached
Ex. Unit cost X 1000
# of prospects reached
Ex. Cost of a full page ad is $5,000
Circulation is 1,250,000
What is the CPM?
$5,000 X 1,000
1,250,000 = $4 CPM
TCPM: the relative cost of reaching one’s target
audience (eg. Cost of reaching only males
rather than the whole audience
CPRP – Cost per rating point
CPRP = Cost of ad unit
Rating
Ex. Cost of ad unit (30 sec. Ad) = $5,000
Program’s ratings: 20
CPRP = 5,000 = $250
20
Print Media
Circulation: the # of copies of an average
issue that will be distributed
Readership: the # of people who actually see
a copy (includes pass along readers)
Ex. 100,000 circulation
3 readers per copy
Readership = 100,000 X 3 = 300,000
Broadcast Media
Rating: % of TV homes delivered to an
advertiser (based on the # of homes
with TVs)
Ex. 100,000 homes with TVs
20,000 sets tuned to Friends
Ratings = 20,000/100,000 = 20%
GRPs: # rating points for program in which the ad
appears X Frequency the ad runs (10 X 4 = 40
GRPs)
Share: how well a program performs against
other shows in the same time period
on a certain day (based on the # of
sets in use)
Ex. 20,000 sets are tuned to NBC at 8:00
on Thursday night, 50,000 sets
are turned on at that time, and there are
100,000 homes with TVs in the market
Share = 20,000/50,000 = 40 (NBC)
HUT: Homes using television at a particular
time (expressed as a % of all TV
homes)
HUT differs from RATINGS because it
combines all viewing rather than specific
program viewing
HUT = 50,000/100,000 = 50
HUT X SHARE = RATINGS  

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