InTooLong wrote at 2016-01-27 20:01:39
Before 9/11, there were the U.S. Customs Service and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS). The bulk of INS dealt with the service side of our country's immigration process, and all of those service functions went to the newly created Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS). INS also had immigration inspectors who checked people at the designated ports of entry. Those inspectors were moved to the newly created Customs & Border Protection (CBP). And INS had special agents who investigated immigration fraud and human smuggling. Those special agents went to the newly created Immigration & Customs Enforcement (ICE). INS also had deportation officers and uniformed immigration officers who were responsible for the custody, care, transport and deportation of illegal aliens, and that function was moved into ICE. The Customs Service was responsible for controlling the flow of "things" in and out of the country. They too had import specialists and inspectors who all went to CBP and special agents who investigated customs fraud, drug smuggling, violations of intellectual property rights (counterfeit goods), violations of control and export of weapons and technology, and child pornography (since the creation of child porn has never been legal in the U.S., the source of any child porn was always assumed to be outside of the U.S., thus giving the Customs agents the jurisdiction to interdict and investigate its production), who all went to ICE. Customs also had its own fleet of aviation and marine assets. They were briefly moved under ICE after 9/11 and then moved under CBP. However, ICE still has a fleet of aircraft that are used to repatriate many of the aliens who are ordered removed by immigration judges. And then you had the Border Patrol, which was responsible for apprehending illegal aliens between the ports of entry. They were under the Department of Justice before 9/11, and they were moved into CBP. Another way to look at it is, that most of the uniformed personnel who deal with guarding our borders went to CBP, and most of the criminal investigators who investigate and enforce our border laws went to ICE. The Customs Service and INS were abolished, and CBP and ICE were created, effective March 2003.