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Civil Engineering/Infill Wall Stiffness


QUESTION: How can we incorporate the stiffness of masonry walls in our ETABS model?
Can we use X-Bracings to include its effects?
How can we calculate the dimensions of the bracings
and how will we model it in ETABS?


ANSWER: Dear Mustafa

You can model the masonry wall as a bracing or a wall. The criteria is simple to fulfill. You should introduce a bracing with the same stiffness as the shear stiffness of the wall. Do you have any problem to calculate stiffness of the wall? You may even calculate the bending stiffness of the wall as well and add it to shear stiffness. The result will be the base of knowledge for you to model a bracing with the same stiffness.

You can also introduce a material type (masonry) in etabs and model your wall directly.



---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Thankyou for your answer. Yes can you guide me on how to calculate the shear stiffness of wall and convert it into an equivalent bracing?

The second method u told is that we can define a material type of masonry and then simply model a wall? what will be the modifiers for this wall?

Dear Mustafa

Shear Stiffness of the wall :

GA/h : A is the cross section area of the wall, G= E /2(1+mu) , For E and mu for masonry materials please consult internet. h is the height of the wall.
you dont need any modifier, the modification is inherent in material properties.
Feel free to ask further if you have any doubt.


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Babak Esmailzadeh Hakimi


I can answer questions in Structural Engineering, Earthquake Engineering, Project Management and Project Control topics!


I am experienced in the area of earthquake engineering in electrical power industry, i.e. Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. My focus has been on structural seismic design of power installations. Recently I have got involved in project management in the category of constructional engineering.

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Bs degree in Civil Engineering from Ferdowsi University ,1988, Mashhad Iran, Ms degree in Earthquake Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 1993, Tehran, Iran

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