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# Civil Engineering/Mass Concreting in Raft Foundation

Question
QUESTION: I have a raft foundation having 4 meter depth and quite large plan. How can I do concreting of this raft?
I know that the raft will be divided into areas in the plan but do we also have to divide the raft vertically like for e.g first we fill 2 meter depth then the rest?
Is there any formulation to determine the actual and allowable difference in temperatures of concrete internally and outside?

Thankyou

This really depends on the capacity/capability of the contractor, but I would say that you will need to cast the raft in a minimum of 2 lifts and possibly in 3, in quick cycles.

You need to take all the precautions (low cement concrete, chilled water and aggregates, casting at night or in cooler times, insulation for all formwork and the top surface, etc) about heat of hydration and measure the temperatures between the core and the surface- the differential should not exceed about 15 degrees C.

Browse my past answers using keywords "heat of hydration, and thermocouples".

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

But i am unable to find your past answer which u mentioned, can u provide me the link?

Hi Ghulam,

I have copied/pasted the Q&A below:

******************************************************
Questioner: Cesar
Subject: Concrete Temperature Control

Question:
Dear sir,

I am working in Macao(China)and I am about to concrete some pile caps in the coming weekends! I work for i work for the constructor, and consulting is concerned with concrete temperature. They ask me to submit to theme one methodology to demonstrate the differential temperature control for the massive concrete!
So I told them that my company is going to try and demonstrate  in a concrete block (not in situ) with 2 meters x 2 meters x  2 meters, for instance!
I can propose whatever I want to, so I need some advice on this temperature issue if you can kindly help me.

Hi Cesar,

The most important thing is to keep the differential temperature between the centre and the surface within certain limits (usually 20-25 degrees C) and to avoid centre temperatures above around 70-80 degrees C. As an example, here are detailed recommendations for thick walls:

4.   THERMAL CONTROL METHODS

4.1  SHUTTERING WILL BE MADE UP OF 18MM MARINE PLY FOR BUNKER WALLS WITH POLYSTYRENE SHEETS ON STANDBY IF NEEDED.

4.2  SHUTTERING WILL BE LEFT FOR A LONGER PERIOD AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE: PLAN FOR  7 DAYS- MAY BE ABLE TO REDUCE THIS PERIOD.

4.3  USAGE OF ADMIXTURES TO KEEP  DOWN THE W.C. RATIO IN SPECIFIC POURS ON BUNKERS. USE OF POZZALANA CEMENT OR  pfa OR GGBS REPLACEMNET (IF AVAILABLE) TO REDUCE HEAT OF HYDRATION.

4.4  POSSIBLE USE OF ICE IN MIXING WATER TO MAINTAIN THE CONCRETE TEMPERATURE TO 30’ DURING SUMMER IF REQUIRED ON ADDITIONAL COST- NOT NECESSARY IF OTHER MEASURES  ARE ADOPTED.

4.5  SHADES FOR SAND & AGGREGATES, SPRAYING OF WATER ON AGGREGATES PILES TO KEEP COOL

4.6  USE OF PORTABLE THERMOMETERS TO TEST THE TEMPERATURE OF CONCRETE BEFORE  PLACING

4.7  USAGE OF THERMOCOUPLES ON  THE INITIAL POURS AS TEST -. USE ON WALLS OR SLABS- IN PAIRS, ONE IN CENTRE AND ONE NEAR SURFACE.

4.8  CONSIDERATION OF DAY AMBIENT TEMPERATURE IN PLANNING- START POURS VERY EARLY MORNING OR LATE AFTERNOONS.

4.9  PREMIX SUPPLIER MUST BE ADVISED ON IMPORATNCE OF TEMPERATURE CONTROL OF  CONCRETE

4.10  APPLICATION OF CURING COMPOUND AT ADDITIONAL COST TO BE ADVISED- USE POLYSTYRENE 50mm SHEETS AND 200mm THICK HESSIAN/GUNNY BAGS FILLED WITH SAWDUST.

4.11  MAXIMUM CORE TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE 70-80 DEG C; MAXIMUM DIFFERENTIAL BETWEEN CORE AND SURFACE SHOULD BE BETWEEN 15-20 DEG C FOR THE THICKER SECTIONS (WILL BE LESS FOR THINNER SECTIONS)

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Civil Engineering

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##### Expertise

I can answer any questions to do with civil and structural engineering consultancy and construction industry in East Africa and the Middle East, and specifically with the analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. My particular expertise is in the aseismic design and optimisation of tall buildings.

##### Experience

Employment history: 40 years in Construction and consultancy in the UK, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Africa, Somalia, Zambia, Austria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Doha and the U.A.E.

Organizations
.Fellow of Institution of Structural Engineers (UK) .Fellow of Institution of Civil Engineers(UK) .Member of the Institution of Engineers, Kenya .Registered Engineer, ERB, Kenya .Member of the Architectural Association of Kenya (Engineers Chapter) .Chartered Engineer (UK)

Publications
•1984: International Conference on the Art and Practice of Structural Design, London •1994: 3rd Int. Kerensky Conference in Structural Engineering, Singapore •2008: International Conference on High-Rise Towers, Abu Dhabi •2013: IEK International Conference, Kisumu, Kenya

Education/Credentials
BSc, 1st Class Hons, in Building Engineering, University of Bath, UK MSc in Concrete Structures and Technology, University of London. Diploma of Imperial College, UK.

Awards and Honors
•Science Congress Special Award (for 2-seater Hovercraft - 1968) •Institution of Civil Engineers Award for outstanding performance at Bath University (1975) •Concrete Society Postgraduate study Bursary Award (1976) •Consular Representative for British High Commission, Nairobi. (1995 to 1998) •Examiner for Institution of Civil Engineers Professional Interviews, Nairobi. (1997 to 1998) •Branch Representative in Vienna for PI assessment for Inst. of Struct. Engrs. (1999 to 2010)