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Civil Engineering/Temperature Loading in ETABS


Whats the best way to model for temperature loading in ETABS?

I have a 45m x 35m structure and its ends up with 1300kN axial tension in beams and slabs and in walls. Making it more worse I have to design water tank for crack widths. Crack widths form axial as well as flexural. Isnt it too impractical design? I would get 500mm slabs with lot of reinforcement. By the way im using shell as slabs

Hi Waseem,

First of all you need to consider the maximum daily temperature range, not seasonal range. Secondly, if the tank is isolated and free to expand/contact then the walls will not have any temperature stress due to strain.

The usual problem is with the roof slab- you can either insulate that to reduce the temperature gain/loss, or isolate that from the walls (sliding joint), if that is possible (i.e. if walls are not designed as propped by the slab).

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Arshad Khan


I can answer any questions to do with civil and structural engineering consultancy and construction industry in East Africa and the Middle East, and specifically with the analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. My particular expertise is in the aseismic design and optimisation of tall buildings.


Employment history: 40 years in Construction and consultancy in the UK, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Africa, Somalia, Zambia, Austria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Doha and the U.A.E.

.Fellow of Institution of Structural Engineers (UK) .Fellow of Institution of Civil Engineers(UK) .Member of the Institution of Engineers, Kenya .Registered Engineer, ERB, Kenya .Member of the Architectural Association of Kenya (Engineers Chapter) .Chartered Engineer (UK)

•1984: International Conference on the Art and Practice of Structural Design, London •1994: 3rd Int. Kerensky Conference in Structural Engineering, Singapore •2008: International Conference on High-Rise Towers, Abu Dhabi •2013: IEK International Conference, Kisumu, Kenya

BSc, 1st Class Hons, in Building Engineering, University of Bath, UK MSc in Concrete Structures and Technology, University of London. Diploma of Imperial College, UK.

Awards and Honors
•Science Congress Special Award (for 2-seater Hovercraft - 1968) •Institution of Civil Engineers Award for outstanding performance at Bath University (1975) •Concrete Society Postgraduate study Bursary Award (1976) •Consular Representative for British High Commission, Nairobi. (1995 to 1998) •Examiner for Institution of Civil Engineers Professional Interviews, Nairobi. (1997 to 1998) •Branch Representative in Vienna for PI assessment for Inst. of Struct. Engrs. (1999 to 2010)

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