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Civil Engineering/Please check my building structure


Dear Sir ,
I am from a remote part of India . Here finding any qualified engineer is just a dream . We all depend on very few ITI skilled persons for building structural design .
I am going to build a G+2 building on ordinary paddy field ( a pond 50' nearby ) .
Foundation - 12 mm @5 " c/c ( 5' x5 ' ) below 5' from the topsoil . 6" ppc layer bottom and then 9" base + 1.25 ' sloping using M20 concrete
Columns - 16 mm 4 pcs + 12 mm 2pcs ( 10" x 10" ) ; maximum distance between the columns -13.5 '
Pilanth beam - 3 pcs 16mm at the bottom and 2 pcs 16mm at the upper part ( 10" x 14 ") with 16mm top both sides .
Now sir please inform me what size of beam and tmt bars should I use in the roof and the concealed beams ?
Beside I used Lafarge Duraguard cement at the foundation work that can gain 50mpa after 28 days . Is it suitable for my building ?
Also crank in the beams are like ---_______--- ( cutting a tmt bar )  shape or the crank like
----________/----- ( bending a single tmt bar ) - which one is better or stronger ?
It would be a great help if you kindly inform me .
Raju .

Hi Raju,

I regret that I cannot do actual designs or checks over this forum due to liability reasons. However, depending on spans and loading the sort of rebar you have indicated should be OK. Make sure your beam depths are at least span/15 to span/18, and about 175-200mm wide. The columns should be minimum 200x200mm in section with minimum 1% rebar tied into the roof beams properly, if you are in a seismic zone. The columns should have 8 or 10mm links at around 150mm spacing, or down to 100mm spacing if in a high seismic zone.

The foundations depend on load and soil criteria, but they can be done in M25 concrete, so you do not need 50 Mpa at 28 days. The beams rebar can be straight, but do include links at maximum spacing of 1/2 depth of beam.

These are all simple guidelines for you.

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Arshad Khan


I can answer any questions to do with civil and structural engineering consultancy and construction industry in East Africa and the Middle East, and specifically with the analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. My particular expertise is in the aseismic design and optimisation of tall buildings.


Employment history: 40 years in Construction and consultancy in the UK, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Africa, Somalia, Zambia, Austria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Doha and the U.A.E.

.Fellow of Institution of Structural Engineers (UK) .Fellow of Institution of Civil Engineers(UK) .Member of the Institution of Engineers, Kenya .Registered Engineer, ERB, Kenya .Member of the Architectural Association of Kenya (Engineers Chapter) .Chartered Engineer (UK)

•1984: International Conference on the Art and Practice of Structural Design, London •1994: 3rd Int. Kerensky Conference in Structural Engineering, Singapore •2008: International Conference on High-Rise Towers, Abu Dhabi •2013: IEK International Conference, Kisumu, Kenya

BSc, 1st Class Hons, in Building Engineering, University of Bath, UK MSc in Concrete Structures and Technology, University of London. Diploma of Imperial College, UK.

Awards and Honors
•Science Congress Special Award (for 2-seater Hovercraft - 1968) •Institution of Civil Engineers Award for outstanding performance at Bath University (1975) •Concrete Society Postgraduate study Bursary Award (1976) •Consular Representative for British High Commission, Nairobi. (1995 to 1998) •Examiner for Institution of Civil Engineers Professional Interviews, Nairobi. (1997 to 1998) •Branch Representative in Vienna for PI assessment for Inst. of Struct. Engrs. (1999 to 2010)

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