Civil Engineering/plates


in column if Emin calculated is grater than 5% of lateral dimension , Then we know that column has to be designed for Moments in addition to axial loads. my doubt is the moment due to eccentricity which we get , should be added to the Moments generated in the rigid frame analysis in a given plane or just design for the moments obtained from rigid frame analysis and ignore the moments due to eccentricity.?

ANSWER: Dear Shah gul

That accidental moment is a minimum limit. If the moment due to actual structure behavior is present and is greater than that limit there is no need to consider or add it to. Then every column has a moment limited to that minimum and upper moment due to loading.


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What is the literature one has to study to understand about the finite element contours in plates like moment contours etc. plz explain the difference between membrane , shell and plate element and their applications.

Dear Shah Gul

My information in this field is not up to date. Please check the Internet for recent literature.

1- Plates have rigidity in bending and Shear and axial forces.

2- Shells and membrane s have no bending and shear rigidity. In shells the axial rigidity is inherent and due to material strength , but in membrane the rigidity come from some loading condition like internal pressure or cable induced loading. The balloon structure is an instance of membrane.


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Babak Esmailzadeh Hakimi


I can answer questions in Structural Engineering, Earthquake Engineering, Project Management and Project Control topics!


I am experienced in the area of earthquake engineering in electrical power industry, i.e. Lifeline Earthquake Engineering. My focus has been on structural seismic design of power installations. Recently I have got involved in project management in the category of constructional engineering.

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Bs degree in Civil Engineering from Ferdowsi University ,1988, Mashhad Iran, Ms degree in Earthquake Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 1993, Tehran, Iran

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