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Civil Engineering/Euro Code Definitions


table from Eurocode 2
table from Eurocode 2  
I want to ask you to help me know what's:
a) permanent actions
b) leading variable actions
c) accompanying variable actions
each one of this divides into favourable and nonfavourable, so what's
d) favourables
e) nonfavourables

I'm new in eurocode system. I previously studied IS Code system.

wishing your respond thanks
From Hargeisa, Somalia

Hi Abdikarim,

Permanent loads are those that are always there- such as self weight and super imposed dead load (finishes), M&E installations, facades, (Gk) etc. Maybe also some proportion of the live load (e.g. furniture or books in library,etc)

Variable loads are imposed gravity (live, Qk)  and lateral loads (wind, seismic, waves, etc)

For partial safety factors, say you are considering a span in a continuous beam, then favourable would be if all spans were equally loaded and unfavourable would be for a span that is fully loaded but adjacent spans on both sides have only minimum self weight (say with factor 0.9) and no live load.

Or another example, if you are look at global overturning moments (stability) for a tall building, favourable would be with maximum Gk and Qk and minimum lateral load. Unfavourable would be with 0.9Gk only and maximum factor for wind or seismic loads  

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Arshad Khan


I can answer any questions to do with civil and structural engineering consultancy and construction industry in East Africa and the Middle East, and specifically with the analysis and design of reinforced concrete structures. My particular expertise is in the aseismic design and optimisation of tall buildings.


Employment history: 40 years in Construction and consultancy in the UK, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Eritrea, South Africa, Somalia, Zambia, Austria, Bahrain, Kuwait, Doha and the U.A.E.

.Fellow of Institution of Structural Engineers (UK) .Fellow of Institution of Civil Engineers(UK) .Member of the Institution of Engineers, Kenya .Registered Engineer, ERB, Kenya .Member of the Architectural Association of Kenya (Engineers Chapter) .Chartered Engineer (UK)

•1984: International Conference on the Art and Practice of Structural Design, London •1994: 3rd Int. Kerensky Conference in Structural Engineering, Singapore •2008: International Conference on High-Rise Towers, Abu Dhabi •2013: IEK International Conference, Kisumu, Kenya

BSc, 1st Class Hons, in Building Engineering, University of Bath, UK MSc in Concrete Structures and Technology, University of London. Diploma of Imperial College, UK.

Awards and Honors
•Science Congress Special Award (for 2-seater Hovercraft - 1968) •Institution of Civil Engineers Award for outstanding performance at Bath University (1975) •Concrete Society Postgraduate study Bursary Award (1976) •Consular Representative for British High Commission, Nairobi. (1995 to 1998) •Examiner for Institution of Civil Engineers Professional Interviews, Nairobi. (1997 to 1998) •Branch Representative in Vienna for PI assessment for Inst. of Struct. Engrs. (1999 to 2010)

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