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Composite Materials/Questions Answered by Expert andy mackay

SubjectDate Asked
control of environment4/29/2016
  Q: In which instances is the control of temperature, moisture or different emissions important and ...
  A: it is important to keep raw materials dry,, this includes resins, dry cloths, pre-pregs and cores. ...
High temperature properties of composites12/15/2015
  Q: It is observed that composites materials properties vary with temperature. Ultem filled 50% with ...
  A: I'm not familiar with ULTEM sorry but understand it is a thermoplastic PEI-type material. ...
Military fabric and resin cups and plates7/24/2015
  Q: Good afternoon! When I was a small child, I seem to remember seeing cups and plates my uncles ...
  A: I haven't seen these items myself, but imagine the mould is coated in resin first, then cord laid ...
tube with ultrathin walls4/4/2015
  Q: Looking for possibility to produce tube length 35 mm ,OD 2.7 mm ,ID 2.5 mm . Ability to handle axial ...
  A: 0.1mm wall thickess is pretty slim all right! This equates to a single layer of 300gm/sqm e-glass ...
Recycled Polyester6/13/2014
  Q: I recently purchased a reading pillow that is stuffed with polyester fibers made from recycled ...
  A: there should be no volatile organic compounds in polyester pillow flock, but it is possible to be ...
hybridization of composite7/25/2013
  Q: this is vasant doing project on "coir & rice husk reinforced vinylester base hybrid composite ...
  A: in most composite matrices, it is the fibre carrying the majority of tensile loading. you could try ...
rudder/keel ?6/2/2013
  Q: Can you explain the construction of the boat to keel, and rudder?
  A: on pleasure craft, rudders are usually made of a fibre glass skin over a foam core, which in turn is ...
fabricatio of coir composite5/8/2013
  Q: I have problem in fabricating COIR COMPOSITE with VINYLESTER as a resin...I am using weight fraction ...
  A: So to get 10% fibre fraction, thats 90 grams of resin to 10 grams of fibre. To get 20% fibre ...
Wooden stacking chair design4/7/2013
  Q: I am a student studying final year product design at Brunel Universiy, London. I am designing a ...
  A: From what I do understand, I'm guessing you're going to bend the front legs to support the chair, ...
weight fraction2/17/2013
  Q: ..i want to put increasing weight percentage of coir to check where exactly is it shows optimum ...
  A: Please refer to link below; http://composite.about.com/library/glossary/f/bldef-f2200.htm If your ...
Kevlar tape fraying2/14/2013
  Q: how can we stop the edges from fraying, we are using this on the edge of a reflector liner/light ...
  A: Couple of suggestions; You can make the shield/liner so that the kevlar stops before the part edge, ...
infusion of carbon fiber FVF adjustment11/25/2012
  Q: I am attempting to fabricate a cosmetic near perfect carbon fiber part with that carbon under glass ...
  A: I'm surprised you're using polyester resin for the process - it typically does not bond well with ...
Composite technology11/22/2012
  Q: my name is moohan and i'm living in iran i have a small workshop about fiber glass composite. i ...
  A: Moulding techniques are; Wet layup (dry glass, apply wet resin layer upon layer and wet out) ...
glass fiber rope properties11/5/2012
  Q: I want to know about the mechanical properties of fiber glass rope, specially its modulus of ...
  A: I need a little more information about the fibre itself - is it in raw state, how many ends and ...
Carbon Fibre7/15/2012
  Q: I need to the answers to some very hard questions that I have been searching on the internet for ...
  A: Brief answer as below, Environmental issues relate to manufacture (feedstocks and process), usage ...
Composite materials for commercial aircraft6/8/2012
  Q: I stumble upon this website as I was searching for the type of composite materials used in Airbus ...
  A: CFRP = Carbon Fibre reinforced plastic - and in aircraft use this is thermoset plastic, typically ...
hard coating5/20/2012
  Q: My name is Edward.I m developing food industry device and one part of device is made ...
  A: you can unravel some filaments and wind them onto a small mandrel - assuming your ulterior motive is ...
fabrication composite3/12/2012
  Q: I have enquiry regarding fabricate a composite. I have a very limited fibres which I've produced by ...
  A: I'm not sure what you mean by limited fibres - do you mean they are short? Best to lay them up in ...
Biocomposite2/2/2012
  Q: Good day, i am doing research on biocomposite. In order to do my samples, i need to determine the ...
  A: Typically the formula used is fibre volume fractin - how much fibre is in a finished composite item. ...
latex substitute?11/28/2011
  Q: **i have to wear a post-op prescrip compression stocking (absolute support hosiery). **the package ...
  A: You might be able to ask the prescribing doctor or nurse - or the hospital/clinic you got the ...
Self-healing composite on helicopters11/17/2011
  Q: I am currently researching on a project at my university on adapting self-healing composites on a ...
  A: I did read something last year that discussed filling the fibreglass strand itself with a liquid ...
Bow Shipping Tube10/8/2011
  Q: I have a particular application and am looking for a low-cost solution. I'd value your advice. I ...
  A: Have you thought about using cardboard tube with perhaps a thin layer of fibreglass over the top? ...
Composite Hydraulic Telescopic Hoist9/2/2011
  Q: We have been working on a hydraulic telescopic hoist project designed for dump trailers for the past ...
  A: I'd need to see the specifications of the hoist, SWL, reach, and planned design before I could ...
Vacuum Infusion8/15/2011
  Q: I have a confusion. After the resin is totally infused, should the vacuum pump stay 'on' for the ...
  A: You need the vacuum pump on until the resin has cured ! The only time you would ever consider ...
CFRP4/25/2011
  Q: what would be the hardness number of CFRP? and which hardness test is usually employed? the resin ...
  A: The hardness is usually determined by a Barcol test or Vickers, Brinell or Rockwell. The hardness ...
standard for composite manhole top covers4/18/2011
  Q: is there any standard for chemical resistance of composite manhole topcovers? I mean that like ...
  A: No standard that I am aware of - perhaps you should check your loacl laws and regulations? If ...
MATERIAL PROPERTIES FOR GLASS FIBER3/19/2011
  Q: I am doing M.E ( cad/cam) in india....my final project is under composite materials....i need one ...
  A: I think this is a homework question - but can give you a few links to check out. Its a big subject ...
flexible resin in nylon based luggage3/1/2011
  Q: Andy, I found your expertise on other resin related question quite helpful. I am looking for a resin ...
  A: Couple of products you could try - but the problem may well be getting any resin based product to ...
Crazing vs cracks2/18/2011
  Q: In your opinion, would you consider crazing to be classified as a type of crack with regards to a ...
  A: I would define crazing as a type of crack, but in composite terms, it is usually (but not always) ...
Relative Humidity for Silk2/16/2011
  Q: Any chance that you happen to know the relative humidity range for silk? I'm trying to prevent the ...
  A: If you were to check the environmental humidity, I would imagine something like silk would very ...
Airbus and Boeing Aircraft Structural Composites2/7/2011
  Q: Airbus and Boeing are two companies using more and more composite materials in their aircraft ...
  A: I wasn't aware of any structural failures with regard to composite materials in modern airliners - ...
Regarding, info about the composite CFRP2/2/2011
  Q: Sir, I'm a final year undergraduate engineering student in ME, I'm searching some info about the ...
  A: There are many types of carbon fibre, and many types of reinforcing plastic (ie. epoxy, BMI, ...
Fiberglass Strenght1/4/2011
  Q: I am making a fiberglass swim platform for my boat. It is 7 foot wide by 24 inches deep. How thick ...
  A: If weight isn't an issue - would suggest you use 18mm plywood (marine grade = BS1088) and glass over ...
Compressing Foams12/30/2010
  Q: Is it true that after we compress foam for quite a long time it is not goes back to the initial ...
  A: Foam CAN be crushed if too much force is applied (especially compressive). This can be prevented by ...
Typical FRP Properties12/5/2010
  Q: I have been scouring the web to look for FRP properties, I have found fragmented information (found ...
  A: You dont mention which fibre or resin system you plan to use, but if underwater (Boat? Mining ...
Properties needed11/28/2010
  Q: I am a grad student doing my thesis on composite material.I need mass density of the following ...
  A: You should be able to find all this info in the manufacturers Material Safety Data Sheet or ...
Making a thin fibreglass mould to help release, then reinforcing it.10/19/2010
  Q: I have 2 questions I would love to have answered! I'm thinking about helping the release of my ...
  A: as if you do, and then laminate again, the resin shrinkage will distort the part as the 2nd laminant ...
Composite strength10/18/2010
  Q: have been trying to work out the composite layup for LRTM that will achieve a tensile strenght of ...
  A: Wow - pretty thin then - not much use looking at sandwich structures. I'd recommend doing a couple ...
Zeppelin Body prototype9/30/2010
  Q: thinking about a proof of concept for lighter than air vehicle. Not sure if composite material can ...
  A: Not sure if you're planning on helium or hydrogen for the gas - hydrogen is a tricky thing to ...
Autoclave cure8/1/2010
  Q: Has anyone come across curing of dry fiber/wet resin after hand lay up in autoclave? Is autoclave ...
  A: You can manufacture your own pre-preg by using a LONG open time resin and wet out the dry glass with ...
Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic7/21/2010
  Q: My lecturer asked me to find their properties (mechanical and chemical), types that are used in ...
  A: The mechanical properties of carbon reinforced plastic (CFRP) comes from BOTH the resin system used ...
Polyerythene Foam Rubber making7/8/2010
  Q: I have spent hours trawling through the internet and I am absolutely no closer to the solution as ...
  A: I take it you have no problem making a 6-piece split mould in gelcoat and fibreglass using standard ...
tempered glass shelf strength4/30/2010
  Q: I want to place a glass shelf in between two walls . the length of the tempered glass shelf is 60 ...
  A: You will need the glass manufacturers mechanical qualities of the tempered glass to be able to make ...
Engineering Materials4/2/2010
  Q: The hardness of a metal specimen was tested on a Brinell hardness-testing machine usins the standard ...
  A: Sorry for the delay in replying Anthony - I'm sorry to report that composite materials aren't ...
Carbon fibre and Aramid3/16/2010
  Q: I am designing a car chassis sub frame with Carbon fibre as the material. Is it possible to combine ...
  A: Yes you can use aramid and carbon fibre together - some materials combine the two into the one ...
A class spar3/11/2010
  Q: I broke my A-class 'Fiberfoam' spar. A clean break which I will fix. My question is, what is the ...
  A: if the core is foam and is damaged, this can be replaced or repaired with a straight butt joint ...
material for shaft design3/5/2010
  Q: I'm a mechanical engineering student and I have to design a shaft which will be used in an outdoor ...
  A: so my answer will be general. I believe the best option given your scenario is to use a steel ...
density2/10/2010
  Q: i like density (lbs/in3) of gmg fiberglass?
  A: I'm not sure what "gmg" glass is - so will be general in my answer. The easiest way to calculate ...
composite meterials11/30/2009
  Q: What is the Defination of Composite materials
  A: composite materials are those made up of two or more parts. Concrete is a composite material = ...
Compositematerials11/17/2009
  Q: What are the measures that is taken to protect the surface of glass fibres ? and What are the 4 ...
  A: Glass fibres are protected in the manufacturing process by coating with a "finish" which aids in ...
Composite car body11/14/2009
  Q: I am trying to make a car body out of composites. At first I only wanted to use carbon fiber, but ...
  A: You can use carbon and glass together - but carbon really works best with epoxy or at least ...
Boat11/12/2009
  Q: I would like to make a boat 6 meter long, and about 1.5 meter wide( vacuum infusion )!From outside 2 ...
  A: I would use a heavier laminant on the bottom (hull) progressing to a lighter laminant on the top ...
Attaching sheets of carbon fiber together11/12/2009
  Q: I am wondering how to attach two solid sheets of finished carbon fiber together along a straight ...
  A: If you want to butt joint (along an edge) the best way is to cut a v-groove in the top and bottom ...
composite mast construction10/3/2009
  Q: I am building a 47 foot catamaran in Mauritius and I have always looked at idea of building a ...
  A: Rig construction would depend on material and resin selection - would suggest talking with a ...
DMC9/22/2009
  Q: A customer has asked me what plastic material, preferably available in rod would substitute for DMC. ...
  A: You could purchase off the shelf a nylon or PPE product, alternately, manufacture one by pultrusion ...
best way to handle polyurethane foam waste9/9/2009
  Q: I have some leftover polyurethane foam scraped off of automobile insides and I wonder what's the ...
  A: I understand there are some companies actively recycling htis type of material - typically dissolved ...
fiberglass yacht mast8/27/2009
  Q: I need to replace my wharram mast. Plans spec alu 127mm dia. 3mm wall, 7.5m tall.. Does it make any ...
  A: You could use fibreglass if you choose, however I would recommend carbon unidirectionals and ...
Inspection8/19/2009
  Q: We have made some cross sections of 1.5 by 1.5 cm composite material imbedded in EpoFix (Struers) ...
  A: I dont confess to expertise in PEEK or Epofix, but I can tell you that Rocol make a product that we ...
Non destructive testing of FGR pipe8/13/2009
  Q: I intend to perform X-ray radiography of a FGR epoxy pipe, 9 mm wall thickness, operating at 10 MPa ...
  A: We use a product called Rocol Flawfinder here in New Zealand. I'm not sure what brand of product ...
gel coat7/31/2009
  Q: I'm a little embarrassed to tell you this but I damn near burned up my boat! Its a fiberglass hull, ...
  A: Accidents happen - dont worry too much. You will need to check if the resin has been burnt or ...
flexible resin7/10/2009
  Q: I have been searching for a while trying to learn about a resin that will remain flexible/bendable. ...
  A: You could try using a rubber-toughened epoxy, vinylester or polyester, however I'm not sure that the ...
Plastics changing color with attrition7/6/2009
  Q: I am an undergraduate student, currently doing a project on design where I am required to work on a ...
  A: The only way I can think of to do this with composite materials (thermoset) instead of plastic ...
best tool to scrape off polyurethane7/5/2009
  Q: I've been building car roofs and I filled the interior of the roofs with hard polyurethane foam, but ...
  A: Yep nasty stuff that hard polyurethane foam sin't it? Its pretty tough on the skin and lungs ...
composite wet lay up7/2/2009
  Q: How difficult should it be to peel individual layers apart after doing a wet layup? I have been ...
  A: Usually the lack of interlaminar bonding comes from either some sort of contamination (can be excess ...
Can residual stress/strain of SMC/BMC composites be measured directly by X-ray diffraction?6/24/2009
  Q: I've come across an interesting statement that because both fibre and matrix are non-crystalline in ...
  A: Nice technical question - I suspect your expertise in engineering composites probably greater than ...
All composite boat building materials5/30/2009
  Q: I have been wanting to find out what materials are used in todays all composite boats. What do they ...
  A: Stringers made from either epoxy coated plywood covered with fibreglass, or fibreglass covered foam. ...
aeronautical5/29/2009
  Q: i am doing a project and a paper on composites used in aircarft's fuselage deisgn, Could you please ...
  A: Most composite fuselages are made by either filament winding on male mandrels or autoclaving hand ...
smart materials5/27/2009
  Q: please could you tell me some process or post production process that smart materials would got ...
  A: Smart materials generally mean either memory metals or ones with special properties. I'm not ...
Standard for Composite manhole Covers5/21/2009
  Q: Is there any quality control (International Standard for manufacturing Composite manhole Covers) ...
  A: Good question Shahid - fibre to resin rations or fibre fraction generally depends on the ...
Material Choice5/17/2009
  Q: I am a student. I have a school project for which I am designing a second pair of wings for a ...
  A: Interesting idea Sofia....the idea of additional wing area when required has been looked at but few ...
Glass shelves5/4/2009
  Q: I want to install a tempered glass shelf, 16 inches wide by 72 inches long. It will be supported by ...
  A: sorry richard - no idea of the structural properties of tempered glass - suggest you try a google ...
composite materials4/15/2009
  Q: what are the applications of composite materials in automobile and marine field?
  A: Will try to list the applications I'm familiar with Automotive Body Panels Underbody Kits Front and ...
temperted glass4/6/2009
  Q: I want to put in a 2'x2' 3/8" corner shelves in my kitchen cabinets. Does the glass have to be ...
  A: Whether the glass should be tempered depends on what kind of loading it will be subject to - I would ...
is rubber totally impermeable2/16/2009
  Q: this is probably a stupid question, but i heard that rubber isn't impermiable to gases, do you know ...
  A: I'm not sure I can give you a definitive answer on this - rubber is a fairly generic and very widely ...
Composite Manhole Cover1/17/2009
  Q: Hye Andy Im a student currently studying in composite technology here in Malaysia.Me n my group ...
  A: I have not seen existing composite manhole covers, but would advise following.... Need significant ...
inquirey12/7/2008
  Q: Identify a composite material used to fabricate parts or components in transportation applications ...
  A: Materials used to fabricate parts or components in tranpostation applications include glass fibre, ...
composite ageing12/2/2008
  Q: I am currently working on the maintenance of composite parts and so i am focusing my work on ...
  A: Big Topic Emilie - composite degradation usually through following methods; Exposure to UV tends to ...
about fibre glass products10/27/2008
  Q: I'm from Myanmar,South East Asia. I'd like to know all things how to make fibreglass products such ...
  A: There are many ways to make fibreglass products, you can either make them off a male mould (or ...
Polyester fibre glass10/6/2008
  Q: I would like to know how to decide what orientation of fibres is best for a particular application. ...
  A: For panel this size, I'd recommend placing the fibres parallel to the intended load. For a panel of ...

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andy mackay

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Expertise

Composite fabrication and testing, plug and mould design & build, surfacing materials, gelcoats, resins (epoxy, polyester, BMI, urethane) GRP, FRP, carbon, aircraft and marine composites, infusion techniques, Light RTM methodology, troubleshooting materials and process engineering.

Experience

11 yrs experience with aeronautical, marine and bathroomware composites.

Education/Credentials
Royal New Zealand Air Force Advanced Composites Course BCA Victoria University, Wellington, 1995

Past/Present Clients
Aeronautical, marine and bathroom ware composite cmanufacturing.

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