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Good morning sir,

please give me answers for these questions.

1. ‘Management is the force which leads, guides and directs an organization in the
accomplishment of pre-determined objectives’. Do you agree or disagree? Justify.
2. Management is regarded as an art by someone, science by others but in reality
science should have many more. The truth seems to be somewhere in between.
In the light of this statement, explain to exact nature of management.
3. ‘The job of the supervisor is many more difficult than that of higher level managers’.
Examine the major responsibilities of a supervisor in an agro based Industry.
4. “A good leader is not necessarily a good manager”. Take one example from service
industry as per your choice and compare the role of leaders and managers

thank you soooo much sir


I  will send  the balance  asap.

.management is the force which leads guides and directs an organization in the accomplishment of pre determined objectives. do u agree or disagree? justify.
Management is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
using   the  Management functions  of  :


*Analyze, on a periodic basis, workload and personnel needs of an organizational unit.

*Recommend changes in the staff level of the work unit.

*Review documentation for new positions and positions that have been revised.

*Obtain approval to modify positions.

*Interview candidates for employment and make hiring decision or recommendations.

*Orient new subordinates concerning policy and procedures, work rules, and performance expectation
levels. Review position responsibilities.

*Plan, delegate, communicate and control work assignments and special projects concerning

*Establish and maintain specific work goals and objectives or quantitative and qualitative work standards
to be achieved by subordinates.

*Train, develop, and motivate subordinates to improve current performance and to prepare for higher  level

*Determine significant changes in responsibilities and major duties of subordinates by reviewing their job
responsibilities on a regular basis.

*Evaluate the performance of subordinates. Document and discuss present and past

*performance with each direct report. Keep supervisor informed of results.

*Review salaries of subordinates and recommend changes according to policy and procedures.

*Recommend personnel actions such as promotions, performance awards, demotions, etc., according
to budget guidance and policy.

*Advise superiors and subordinates of developments that impact job duties. Ensure proper

*Maintain discipline, recommend and administer corrective action according to policy and procedures.

*Communicate and administer personnel programs in accordance with design and objectives.

*Maintain proper documentation on all subordinates.

*Direct the business activities of the company for the achievement of short and long term business/policy objectives, increased profit, production activity, or market share.

*Establish the business's objectives, policies and programmes within the context of the overall Corporate plan and, where appropriate, recommend standards and set targets (may include manufacturing, sales, marketing, distribution and administration).

*Prepare, or arrange for the preparation of the business's budgets, reports and forecasts, and ensure they are presented in a timely manner to the  MANAGEMENT.

*Appraise the activities of the BUSINESS according to overall strategies and objectives, and monitor and evaluate branch and division performance, the efficiency of staff, procedures and production costs.

*Co ordinate subordinate staff to optimise the use of human and material resources to achieve goals. Consult with subordinate staff and review recommendations and reports.

*Oversee the development and implementation of all BUSINESS  activities including production, distribution and sales, to protect the funds invested.

*Plan and review the BUSINESS  operating costs particularly with regard to production, output, quality and quantity, cost, time available, labour requirements, planned production programmes and control activities, inventory levels, freight and advertising.

*Direct the preparation of marketing plans, key customer strategies and sales forecasts recommended by subordinate managers and ensure adequate support is provided in all branches/areas.

*Control use of production plant facilities by planning maintenance, designating operating hours and supply of parts and tools.

*Direct research into new and improved production methods and products, changes in selling policies, and other areas necessary to ensure the continued growth of the business.

*Select, or approve the selection and training of senior staff. Establish lines of control and delegate responsibilities to staff.

*Provide overall direction and management of the business, including personnel, technological resources and assets. Maintain necessary contact with major suppliers, customers, industry associations and government representatives to achieve the objectives of the business.

*Ensure all the business's activities comply with relevant Acts, legal demands and ethical standards.
The three parts are:
•   achieving the task
•   managing the team or group
•   managing individuals
***Your responsibilities as a manager for achieving the TASK  are:
•   identify aims and vision for the group, purpose, and direction - define the activity (the task)
•   identify resources, people, processes, systems and tools (inc. financials, communications, IT)
•   create the plan to achieve the task - deliverables, measures, timescales, strategy and tactics
•   establish responsibilities, objectives, accountabilities and measures, by agreement and delegation
•   set standards, quality, time and reporting parameters
•   control and maintain activities against parameters
•   monitor and maintain overall performance against plan
•   report on progress towards the group's aim
•   review, re-assess, adjust plan, methods and targets as necessary

***Your responsibilities as a manager for theGroup / team  are:
•   establish, agree and communicate standards of performance and behaviour
•   establish style, culture, approach of the group - soft skill elements
•   monitor and maintain discipline, ethics, integrity and focus on objectives
•   anticipate and resolve group conflict, struggles or disagreements
•   assess and change as necessary the balance and composition of the group
•   develop team-working, cooperation, morale and team-spirit
•   develop the collective maturity and capability of the group - progressively increase group freedom and authority
•   encourage the team towards objectives and aims - motivate the group and provide a collective sense of purpose
•   identify, develop and agree team- and project-leadership roles within group
•   enable, facilitate and ensure effective internal and external group communications
•   identify and meet group training needs
•   give feedback to the group on overall progress; consult with, and seek feedback and input from the group

***Your responsibilities as a manager for each INDIVIDUAL   are:
•   understand the team members as individuals - personality, skills, strengths, needs, aims and fears
•   assist and support individuals - plans, problems, challenges, highs and lows
•   identify and agree appropriate individual responsibilities and objectives
•   give recognition and praise to individuals - acknowledge effort and good work
where appropriate reward individuals with extra responsibility, advancement and status :

To meet the many demands of performing their functions, managers assume multiple roles. A role is an organized set of behaviors. There  are  ten roles common to the work of all managers. The ten roles are divided into three groups:
interpersonal, informational, and decisional.
1.The informational roles link all managerial work together.
2.The interpersonal roles ensure that information is provided.
3.The decisional roles make significant use of the information.
The performance of managerial roles and the requirements of these roles can be played at different times by the same manager and to different degrees depending on the level and function of management. The ten roles are described individually, but they form an integrated whole.

The organizing process can be done efficiently if the managers have certain guidelines so that they can take decisions and can act. To organize in an effective manner, the following principles of organization can be used by a manager.
1.   Principle of Specialization
According to the principle, the whole work of a concern should be divided amongst the subordinates on the basis of qualifications, abilities and skills. It is through division of work specialization can be achieved which results in effective organization.
2.   Principle of Functional Definition
According to this principle, all the functions in a concern should be completely and clearly defined to the managers and subordinates. This can be done by clearly defining the duties, responsibilities, authority and relationships of people towards each other. Clarifications in authority-responsibility relationships helps in achieving co-ordination and thereby organization can take place effectively. For example, the primary functions of production, marketing and finance and the authority responsibility relationships in these departments shouldbe clearly defined to every person attached to that department. Clarification in the authority-responsibility relationship helps in efficient organization.   
3.   Principles of Span of Control/Supervision
According to this principle, span of control is a span of supervision which depicts the number of employees that can be handled and controlled effectively by a single manager. According to this principle, a manager should be able to handle what number of employees under him should be decided. This decision can be taken by choosing either froma wide or narrow span. There are two types of span of control:-
a.   Wide span of control- It is one in which a manager can supervise and control effectively a large group of persons at one time. The features of this span are:-
i.   Less overhead cost of supervision
ii.   Prompt response from the employees
iii.   Better communication
iv.   Better supervision
v.   Better co-ordination
vi.   Suitable for repetitive jobs
According to this span, one manager can effectively and efficiently handle a large number of subordinates at one time.
b.   Narrow span of control- According to this span, the work and authority is divided amongst many subordinates and a manager doesn't supervises and control a very big group of people under him. The manager according to a narrow span supervises a selected number of employees at one time. The features are:-
i.   Work which requires tight control and supervision, for example, handicrafts, ivory work, etc. which requires craftsmanship, there narrow span is more helpful.
ii.   Co-ordination is difficult to be achieved.
iii.   Communication gaps can come.
iv.   Messages can be distorted.
v.   Specialization work can be achieved.
Factors influencing Span of Control
3.   Managerial abilities- In the concerns where managers are capable, qualified and experienced, wide span of control is always helpful.
4.   Competence of subordinates- Where the subordinates are capable and competent and their understanding levels are proper, the subordinates tend to very frequently visit the superiors for solving their problems. In such cases, the manager can handle large number of employees. Hence wide span is suitable.
5.   Nature of work- If the work is of repetitive nature, wide span of supervision is more helpful. On the other hand, if work requires mental skill or craftsmanship, tight control and supervision is required in which narrow span is more helpful.
6.   Delegation of authority- When the work is delegated to lower levels in an efficient and proper way, confusions are less and congeniality of the environment can be maintained. In such cases, wide span of control is suitable and the supervisors can manage and control large number of sub- ordinates at one time.
7.   Degree of decentralization- Decentralization is done in order to achieve specialization in which authority is shared by many people and managers at different levels. In such cases, a tall structure is helpful. There are certain concerns where decentralization is done in very effective way which results in direct and personal communication between superiors and sub- ordinates and there the superiors can manage large number of subordinates very easily. In such cases, wide span again helps.
4.   Principle of Scalar Chain
Scalar chain is a chain of command or authority which flows from top to bottom. With a chain of authority available, wastages of resources are minimized, communication is affected, overlapping of work is avoided and easy organization takes place. A scalar chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of effective results. As the authority flows from top to bottom, it clarifies the authority positions to managers at all level and that facilitates effective organization.
5.   Principle of Unity of Command
It implies one subordinate-one superior relationship. Every subordinate is answerable and accountable to one boss at one time. This helps in avoiding communication gaps and feedback and response is prompt. Unity of command also helps in effective combination of resources, that is, physical, financial resources which helps in easy co-ordination and, therefore, effective organization.
Authority Flows from Top to Bottom

Managing Director

Marketing Manager

Sales/ Media Manager

According to the above diagram, the Managing Director has got the highest level of authority. This authority is shared by the Marketing Manager who shares his authority with the Sales Manager. From this chain of hierarchy, the official chain of communication becomes clear which is helpful in achievement of results and which provides stability to a concern. This scalar chain of command always flow from top to bottom and it defines the authority positions of different managers at different levels.
Principles of organization
1. Principle of unity of objectives: Organizational goals, departmental goals, and individual goals must be clearly defined. All goals and objectives must have uniformity. When there is contradiction among different level of goals desired goals can’t be achieved. Therefore, unity of objectives is necessary
2. Principle of specialization:  Sound and effective organization believes on organization. The term specialization is related to work and employees. When an employee takes special type of knowledge and skill in any area, it is known as specialization. Modern business organization needs the specialization, skill and knowledge by this desired sector of economy and thus, efficiency would be established.
3. Principle of coordination: In an organization many equipment, tools are used. Coordination can be obtained by group effort that emphasize on unity of action. Therefore, coordination facilitates in several management concepts
4. Principle of authority: Authority is the kind of right and power through which it guides and directs the actions of others so that the organizational goals can be achieved. It is also related with decision making. It is vested in particular position, not to the person because authority is given by an institution and therefore it is legal. It generally flows from higher level to lowest level of management. There should be unbroken line of authority.
5. Principle of responsibility: Authentic body of an organization is top level management, top level management direct the subordinates. Departmental managers and other personnel take the direction from top level management to perform the task. Authority is necessary to perform the work .only authority is not provided to the people but obligation is also provided. So the obligation to perform the duties and task is known as responsibility. Responsibility can’t be delegated. It can’t be avoided.
6. Principle of delegation: Process of transferring authority and creation of responsibility between superior and subordinates to accomplish a certain task is called delegation of authority. Authority is only delegated, not responsibilities in all levels of management. The authority delegated should be equal to responsibility
7. Principle of efficiency: In enterprise different resources are used. Therese resources must be used in effective manner. When the organization fulfill the objectives with minimum cost, it is effective. Organization must always concentrate on efficiency.
8. Principle of unity of command:  subordinates should receive orders from single superior at a time and all subordinates should be accountable to that superior. More superior leads to confusion, delay and so on.
9. Principle of span of control: unlimited subordinates cant be supervised by manager, this principle thus helps to determine numerical limit if subordinates to be supervised by a manager. This improves efficiency.
10. Principle of balance: the functional activities their establishment and other performances should be balanced properly. Authority, centralization, decentralization must be balance equally. This is very challenging job but efficient management must keep it.
11. Principle of communication:  Communication is the process of transformation of information from one person to another of different levels. It involves the systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding opinions ideas, feelings, information, views etc, in flow of information. Effective communication is important
12. Principle of personal ability: for sound organization, human resources is important. Employees must be capable. Able employees can perform higher. Mainly training and development programs must be encouraged to develop the skill in the employees
13. Principle of flexibility:  organizational structure must be flexible considering the environmental dynamism. Sometimes, dramatically change may occur in the organization and in that condition, organization should be ready to accept the change
14. Principle of simplicity: this principles emphasizes the simplicity of organizational structure, the structure if organization should be simple with minimum number of levels do that its member an understand duties and authorities.

Dealing with Employees

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Leo Lingham


Questions include managing work situation, managing work relations, managing your boss, personal problems, career planning, career development, training, coaching, counseling etc


18 years working managerial experience covering business planning,
strategic planning, management services, personnel administration etc


24 years of management consulting in business planning, strategic planning, human resources development, training, business coaching,




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