Dermatology/sebacous cysts

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A sebaceous cyst is a closed sac under the skin filled with a cheese-like material.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors

Sebaceous cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles. Skin trauma can also induce a cyst to form. A sac of cells is created into which a protein called keratin is secreted.

These cysts are usually found on the face, neck, and trunk. They are usually slow- growing, painless, freely movable lumps beneath the skin. Occasionally, however, a cyst will become inflamed and tender.

Symptoms

The main symptom is usually a small, non-painful lump beneath the skin.

If the lump becomes infected or inflammed, other symptoms may include:

Skin redness

Tender or sore skin

Warm skin in the affected area

Grayish-white, cheesy, foul-smelling material may drain from the cyst.

Signs and tests

In most cases, your doctor can diagnose this type of cyst by simply examining your skin. Occasionally, a biopsy may be needed to rule out other conditions.

Treatment

Sebaceous cysts are not dangerous and can usually be ignored. Placing a warm moist cloth (compress) over the area may help the cyst drain and heal.

If you have a small inflamed cyst, your doctor may inject it with a steroid medicine that reduces swelling.

If the cyst becomes swollen, tender, or large, your doctor may drain it or perform surgery to remove it.

Expectations (prognosis)

Large, painful cysts may interfere with day-to-day life.

Complications

These cysts may occasionally become infected and form painful abscesses.

The cysts may return after they are surgically removed.

Calling your health care provider

Call your health care provider if you notice any new growths on your body. Although cysts are not dangerous, your doctor should examine you for signs of skin cancer.

Cysts are removed by surgery unless they are infected. Antibiotics will not treat sebaceous cysts unless infected.

Dermatology

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Michael S. Fisher, <B>Ph.D., M.D.</B>

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