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Country Telephone Code

Country Telephone Code
QUESTION: Dear Deirdre

http://countrycode.org/
http://www.countrycallingcodes.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telephone_numbering_plan
http://geography.about.com/cs/countries/a/numbercountries.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Telecommunication_Union
http://www.iucnredlist.org/technical-documents/data-organization/countries-by-re

We have different international telephone codes for every country.
There are 196 countries in the world.

Some examples :

USA, Canada : 1
UK : 44
India : 91
Russia : 7
Netherlands : 31

How those standards were set for each telephone country code by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) ?

i.e. Is the Number codes given as per country names alphabetical sorting i.e. Afghanisation, Albania, Algeria etc
i.e. Afghanisation = 1, Albania = 2, Algeria = 3, but looks like this may be not the case as USA = 1.

Statistical analysis for the International Telephone codes
----------------------------------------------------------

1.Min and Max Numbers

USA : 1  - Min Number
Uzbekistan : 998 - Max Number.

2. Telephone Code Sorting - Ascending Order

USA : 1
Kazakhstan, Russia : 7
Egypt : 20
Greece : 30

etc

3.Telephone Code Sorting - Descending Order

Uzbekistan : 998
Kyrgyzstan : 996
Georgia : 995

etc

Was a Random number selected for every international country telephone code for the standards ?

Some of the Whole Integer Numbers are not taken into account for example 2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11 etc. i.e. they are skipped.

International telephone codes were given on the basis of Grouping of countries region wise viz Africa, Asia, Europe, America, Antarctic ?

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

ANSWER: The assignment of country codes is far from random, but it is an interesting history. At the beginning of the telephone system there were no codes at all - one would pick up the receiver and ring an operator who would connect the call. Then, dials were added to the phone, and local calls could be initiated by dialing, but one still needed an operator to make a long-distance call. Many countries were beginning to develop telephone systems, but international calls were still rare. The first International calls began in about 1927 and were conducted by radio.These calls would cost about \$45.00 for 3 minutes (about \$550 in 2012 dollars)

While the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable was laid around 1850, the first such telephone cable was not laid until 1956 and carried 36 channels.

In the early 1960s, the Telephone system in Europe was becoming more interconnected, and the ITU (then CCITT) began assigning codes for various countries. Later, the Earth was divided into 9 regions, with the first digit representing the region.
World zone 1 is North and Central America
World zone 2 is Africa
World zones 3 and 4 are Europe
World zone 5 is South America
world zone 6 is Oceana, Australia
World zone 7 was the USSR with one country code.
World zone 8 is Eastern Asia
World zone 9 is Western Asia and the Middle-East.

Also, when rotary phones were in common use, it was decided in many locations that the most populous areas would have the numbers that were quickest to dial, so this is echoed in area codes in many countries. You can find more about that here: http://www.area-codes.com/area-code-history.asp

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Dear Deirdre

Thank you

Reference
---------

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_calling_codes

Logical grouping for All Countries region wise into 9 zones.

Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area
Zone 2 – Mostly Africa
Zones 3/4 – Europe
Zone 5 – Mostly Latin America
Zone 6 – Southeast Asia and Oceania
Zone 7 – Eurasia (former Soviet Union)
Zone 8 – East Asia and special services
Zone 9 – Central, South and Western Asia

Country Names alphabetically Sorted viz Afghanisation, Albania, Algeria etc and assigning them whole numbers incrementally also would have worked as International Country Telephone Codes Standards ?
In this regard, there is no logical grouping for country names region wise into zones.

i.e. Every Country Name alphabetically sorted in ascending order assigned with Number increment starting from 1 till 196. i.e. Total 196 records.

The above solution for International Telephone Codes Standardization would  also have worked ?.

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

ANSWER: The problem with numbering countries alphabetically is that the names of countries change with relative frequency, and changes might result in re-numbering other countries at times in the event of such changes.

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Dear Deirdre

Thank you.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_country_calling_codes

Logical grouping for All Countries region wise into 9 zones.

Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area
Zone 2 – Mostly Africa
Zones 3/4 – Europe
Zone 5 – Mostly Latin America
Zone 6 – Southeast Asia and Oceania
Zone 7 – Eurasia (former Soviet Union)
Zone 8 – East Asia and special services
Zone 9 – Central, South and Western Asia

Example 1
---------

The International Telephone Country Code for United Kingdom is 44.

Why UK was placed in Band / Zone 3 or why Country Telephone code of
UK was assigned 44 and not 43 or 45 ?. i.e. Austria was assigned
43, Denmark was assigned 45 ?.

Were the Telephone codes assigned to European Countries given on the basis of its Country Freedom History, Country Size - Area, Country Population
etc ?

Now All European countries are grouped in Zone 3 & Zone 4.

30 : Greece
31 : Netherlands
32 : Belgium
33 : France
34 : Spain
350 :  Gibraltar
351 : Portugal
352 : Luxembourg
353 : Ireland
354 : Iceland
355 : Albania
356 : Malta
357 : Cyprus
358 : Finland, Aland Islands
359 : Bulgaria
36  : Hungary
370 : Lithuania
371 : Latvia
372 : Estonia
373 : Moldova
374 : Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh
375 : Belarus
376 : Andorra
377 : Monaco
378 : San Mariano
379 : Vatican city
380 : Ukraine
381 : Serbia
382 : Montenegro
383 : -
384 : -
385 : Croatia
386 : Slovenia
387 : Bosnia and Herzegovina
388 : European Telephone Numbering Space
389 : Republic of Macedonia
39  : Italy, Vatican city
40 :  Romania
41 : Switzerland
420 : Czech Republic
421 : Slovakia
422 : -
423 : Liechtenstein
424 : -
425 : -
426 : -
427 : -
428 : -
429 : -
43  : Austria
44  : United Kingdom, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey
45  : Denmark
46  : Sweden
47  : Norway, Svalbard and Jan Mayen
48  : Poland
49  : Germany

Example 2:

The International Telephone Country Code for India is 91.
Why India was not assigned 90 or 93 as International Telephone Code ?

The Asian countries are grouped in Band 8 and Band 9. i.e. Turkey was assigned 90, Afghanistan was assigned 93.

90 : Turkey
91 : India
92 : Pakistan
93 : Afghanistan
94 : Sri Lanka

Were the Telephone codes assigned to Asian Countries given on the basis of its Country Freedom History, Country Size - Area, Country Population etc ?

Awaiting your reply,

Thanks & Regards,
Prashant S Akerkar

Answer
I don't know exactly why each country was given the number they were given - in many instances, as mentioned before, more populous areas were given a code that could be dialed quicker on a rotary phone. Thus, for India, 91 could be dialed much faster than 90, so that might have been part of the decision. 90 takes almost twice as long to dial as does 90.
Questioner's Rating
 Rating(1-10) Knowledgeability = 10 Clarity of Response = 10 Politeness = 10 Comment Dear Deirdre Thank you. Take care. Thanks & Regards, Prashant S Akerkar

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