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1. what advantages does alternating current have as compared to direct current?

2. what factors determine the value of voltage produced by a generator?

3. what is the voltage waveform produced by an ac generator called?

4.what are the characteristics of a capacitive circuit and inductive circuit?

Answer
1. Without an application in mind there is no answer to this question.  In the area of power distribution ac has proven superior due to the use of transformers and voltage controlling technologies that are not available in the dc realm.  But, in electronic circuits we need dc to power transistors and various electronic components.

2.  Generators work on magnetic principles. When a wire passes through a magnetic field a current through the wire is generated.  

http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://tds.ic.polyu.edu.hk/td/theme1/image/g

3. If it is a good generator it will be a sine wave.

4. You must simplify the question.  But the basics of C and L can be learnt here:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_reactance

And so on.  You have a lot of  studying to do!  Carry on and best wishes.  

Electronics

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Electronics questions about AC, DC and digital theory.

Experience

Graduate electrical engineer with over 40 years in electronic design, manufacturing, project organization and patent review. Experience in fields of industrial and consumer electronics (audio, video, acoustics, etc.)

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IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); Senior Life member AES (Audio Engineering Society), Fellow Life member

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BSEE University of North Dakota

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