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Electronics/Transistor amplifiers


hey there, just wanted to say you did a great job explaining this all and it does make sense to me but there's one thing i don't quite understand, i've been tryin to figure it for a while, but without any testing tools unfortunately, the common ground point says 0v, now...does it actually read 0v? or does it read -12? if the total supply voltage is 12 of course, the reason i ask this is because i know that the voltage between the resistors must equal half the supply voltage, but i'm not sure how to make it equal half.

Voltage is measured between two points and give the difference in volts.

If the ground line of the circuit is zero volts then you can put the test probe anywhere in the circuit to measure.

Some amplifier circuits are driven with + and - supplies such that center point is the zero voltage reference.

Please study Kirchoffs law of voltage loops.  


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Electronics questions about AC, DC and digital theory.


Graduate electrical engineer with over 40 years in electronic design, manufacturing, project organization and patent review. Experience in fields of industrial and consumer electronics (audio, video, acoustics, etc.)

IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); Senior Life member AES (Audio Engineering Society), Fellow Life member

BSEE University of North Dakota

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