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Electronics/free electrons

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Question
Why net average thermal velocity of all free electrons is assumed to be zero?

Answer
Are you talking about free electrons in solid metal conductors? In metals temperature is uniform and free electrons converge to outside of metalic surface.  Movement of electrons are free to move but conductivity of metal is high and allows all electrons to move about same throughout the outer area of the surface.  Thus the thermal velocities are balancing all the way going every direction on the surface.

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Electronics questions about AC, DC and digital theory.

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Graduate electrical engineer with over 40 years in electronic design, manufacturing, project organization and patent review. Experience in fields of industrial and consumer electronics (audio, video, acoustics, etc.)

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