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Question
circuit
circuit  
In the image given they take voltage 4i wrt to the 4 ohm rezistor.why not -4i?also tell me its general rule please

Answer
Do you know Kirchoffs rule? It says that the sum of the voltages around a loop must add up to zero.
Current flow is from the plus terminal of a battery.

Maybe you are thinking of electron flow who's opposite and not really used anymore in circuit analysis now days.

Does this help?  

Electronics

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Electronics questions about AC, DC and digital theory.

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Graduate electrical engineer with over 40 years in electronic design, manufacturing, project organization and patent review. Experience in fields of industrial and consumer electronics (audio, video, acoustics, etc.)

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IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers); Senior Life member AES (Audio Engineering Society), Fellow Life member

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BSEE University of North Dakota

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