English as a Second Language/few questions


Hi, Shannon,

Thanks for your response last time.
It is very clear.
There are some questions that I need your help again.

When the immune system mistakenly attacks intestinal cells and friendly gut bacteria.
In this sentence, is "and" associated with mistakenly and friendly?

The researchers Peter Ucko and Andree Rosenfeld identified three principal locations of paintings in the caves of western Europe: in galleries immediately off the inhabited areas of caves;
I do not know what the meaning of "in galleries immediately off the inhabited areas of caves".

So, to sum up, we can say that phrenology was of some scientific value although many, if not most, of its ideas have been superseded.
What does it mean "if not most"?

So, you're probably thinking all this is really bizarre, right? Well, so did some people back then!
What does it mean "back then"?

As a result, when hunting larger animals, they tend to take the various age-groups in closer proportion to their actual occurrence.
I do not understand the meaning "in closer proportion to their actual occurrence"?

Thank you so much for your help.

1. It is simply combining "cells" with "bacteria."  The immune system attacks both.

2. Gallery is a room or building that displays paintings or drawings.  "Immediately off" means some room that is attached to, but separate from, a main room.

3. It connects to "many."  The meaning is "probably most."   We use "if not {comp. adj.}" when we aren't 100% sure that something is more than 50%, but we think it is.  

4. It just means "in that time period."

5. It's not 100% clear here, but it would seem to refer to the occurrence of the larger animals.  If so, it means they are taking only a set number of animals from each age level (3-year old animals, 10-year old animals, 25-year old animals, etc.) probably because otherwise, you would make all of the animals extinct by killing them indiscriminately.

English as a Second Language

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Shannon Cole


I can answer questions related to learning the English and Spanish language.


I have taught ESL and Spanish since 1998 at the university and middle school levels. I am a native of the U.S., and have taught in both the U.S. and Mexico.

I am owner and operator of www.coleinstitute.com, an online language school.

Georgia TESOL in Action (1999)

B.A. in Spanish; M.Ed. in Language Education

Past/Present Clients
I have clients worldwide, some who want their documents proofread, and others who take lessons with me through the Internet. Some work at high-profile companies and government organizations. Besides the U.S. and Mexico, my recent students come from South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, Colombia, Russia, Italy, Paraguay, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Saudi Arabia.

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