English as a Second Language/Grammar



Dear Shannon;

Which item is correct?

1- The strategy ..... to control pollution in Tehran is effective.
1) planned   2) planning  
2- Heat in the atmosphere causes the Earth to get warmer.
1) trapped      2) trapping

Thanks a lot for your attention.

ANSWER: 1. Planned
2. Trapped

You're welcome!

---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Salaam again,

Thanks a lot for your attention.

But we have Strategy planning and heat trapping, too.
Why they are not suitable in these tests.

Yes, but they are being used differently.  In those cases, we are using the "-ing" or gerund form of the verb in order to change it into a noun, an object to discuss.  In the examples you provided above, we are keeping the words as verbs but simply putting them into the past tense.

English as a Second Language

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Shannon Cole


I can answer questions related to learning the English and Spanish language.


I have taught ESL and Spanish since 1998 at the university and middle school levels. I am a native of the U.S., and have taught in both the U.S. and Mexico.

I am owner and operator of www.coleinstitute.com, an online language school.

Georgia TESOL in Action (1999)

B.A. in Spanish; M.Ed. in Language Education

Past/Present Clients
I have clients worldwide, some who want their documents proofread, and others who take lessons with me through the Internet. Some work at high-profile companies and government organizations. Besides the U.S. and Mexico, my recent students come from South Korea, Switzerland, Turkey, Colombia, Russia, Italy, Paraguay, China, Japan, the Philippines, and Saudi Arabia.

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