English as a Second Language/Grammar


I am an Iranian English teacher. The following questions have made some of my students confused.
Which item is correct?

1- The strategy ..... to control pollution in Tehran is effective.
1) planned    2) planning
2- Heat in the atmosphere causes the Earth to get warmer.
1) trapped      2) trapping

Thanks a lot for your attention.

Hi Ali!

1. 1 is correct.  A strategy cannot plan, but it can be planNED.

2. 1 is correct for the same reason.

If the subject also does the action itself, then you would use the gerund - V + ing - form, such as "a computer using energy", but if it does not, you would use the past participle form, such as "a cooked egg."

Hope that helps!

English as a Second Language

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Brian Connelly


I can answer pretty much any question a student might have about English; about grammar, vocabulary, meanings of words, phrases, expressions or idioms, pronunciation, etc. I can answer questions about how to learn or study English better, how to improve certain aspects of communication (listening, writing, speaking, etc), about why we have certain rules.


I've been teaching English in Japan, mainly as a private (one-to-one) teacher, but also at companies such as Universal Studios or international airports. I have taught professional interpreters and translators and I have also taught students who dropped out of high school and never learned any English. Several years ago I acquired the CELTA and I have been running my own classroom for the past year.

None in particular, but I work with a number of companies who regularly introduce me to new students and occasionally to other companies that are looking for English teachers.


Past/Present Clients
I currently have approximately 40 individual students with whom I work one on one. I have also worked with local manufacturing companies, colleges, local retailers, as well as Sharp, Universal Studios, Itami International Airport, Kobe International Airport

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