English as a Second Language/each and every

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Question
QUESTION: Hello.i get confused while using each and every.can you pleaae explan the difference?

ANSWER: Hello, Anabell,

"Each" singles out separate items, one by one; while "every" includes them, grouping them together. For instance, if I say "each star in the sky," I am considering them one by one. If I say "every star in the sky", I am considering them collectively--as a group. I have read that "each" applies more to people, and "every" to other things, but I don't think that's true.

You may find http://www.englishforums.com/English/DifferenceBetweenEachEvery/hpjlk/post.htm helpful. Even experts seem to have difficulty stating a hard and fast rule about how to use the two words, and what is is difference (very small) between them. Some things seems to be learned more easily by reading and listening, and absorbing how the words are used, and their 'collocation'--that is the words they are used alongside.

Do read as much as possible, and/or use the 'read aloud' function on something like Adobe Reader to help you get used to the feeling of the words as they are used in the language by native speakers. The Kindle reader is a wonderful help with that, and if you don't have a Kindle device, Amazon.com has a free software you can download, along with many free books you can use for listening.

I wish I could explain this more clearly, but I hope I have been able to help a little, at least.



---------- FOLLOW-UP ----------

QUESTION: Thank you so much.i also have confusions regarding on and upon,over and above.would be grateful for the guidance.

Answer
Hello!

"On" and "upon" are very close synonyms, with very subtle differences. They can be used almost interchangeably. A good discussion of them can be found at http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-on-and-vs-upon/.

As to "above" and "over", take a look at http://www.learnersdictionary.com/blog.php?action=ViewBlogArticle&ba_id=96.

I hope this helps.

English as a Second Language

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Prof. Evona York, UABC

Expertise

I can help with almost anything having to do with English as a Second Language, including grammar and syntax, the basic skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking), etc. I am happy to help with proofreading and advice, but will not do homework for people. I CAN HELP WITH SHORT QUESTIONS, but because I am swamped with translations at the moment, I DO NOT HAVE TIME FOR LONG ONES. I'd like to help you make your English even better. The goal of a good teacher is to teach the student TO LEARN HOW TO LEARN. So if you want to know what a word means, first look it up at Merriam Webster’s Learners Dictionary at http://www.learnersdictionary.com/pronex/pronex.htm. This is a wonderful site, especially for people who are learning English as a Foreign Language. After you have done that, if you still don't understand the meaning, write to me and tell me what the dictionary said, and what you think it means. I will be glad to help you after you have tried for yourself to find out the meaning. This process will help you grow in your already-excellent English. All the best, Prof. Evona York

Experience

I taught for a number of years at the Autonomous University of Baja California, am now retired from teaching, but working fulltime as a translator, and MOU Academic Liaison (academic exchange). Many years as translator for "Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa" redie.ens.uabc.mx. Online magazine of the Institute for Educational Research. Present: Translator and MOU Academic Liaison: UABC Department of International Alliance and Academic Exchange. Many yeart tutoring and private classes English a foreign/second language. Designer and teacher of interlinguistic EFS/ESL language; presenter of Experimental EFL Method, FEULE. Estensive experience in song translation English, Spanish, many other languages.

Publications
"Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa" redie.ens.uabc.mx Many articles online. Many examples of my work, both as a researcher and a translator, are online. Translator: English version, biography of Frida Kahlo sold at The Blue House museum, Mexico City. Translator: “Glutatión, la clave para tu salud” by Jimmy Gutman MD, kudo.ca communications, Canada. 2014

Education/Credentials
Graduate of the School of Languages, Autonomous University of Baja California. Holder of Cambridge University's Certificate for Overseas Teachers of English.

Past/Present Clients
Translator for "Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa" redie.ens.uabc.mx.Online magazine of the Institute for Educational Research. Present clients: Translator and MOU Academic Liaison: UABC Department of International Alliance and Academic Exchange. Translator: English version, biography of Frida Kahlo sold at The Blue House museum, Mexico City. Translator: “Glutatión, la clave para tu salud” by Jimmy Gutman MD, kudo.ca communications, Canada. 2014

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