English as a Second Language/Question


Hi Amy.
Thanks again for your kind answer.
This time, the following sentence was somehow challenging:

It might be fair to say that Malevich’s abstraction sprang, Athena-like, ready formed from the brow of its creator; this distinguishes Malevich’s approach very sharply from that of both Mondrian and Kandinsky, who had sensed and inched their way into abstraction over a period of many years.

I have problem in understanding this part:
Malevich’s abstraction sprang, Athena-like, ready formed from the brow of its creator

Many thanks.

Hello again Azad,

Athena was the goddess of wisdom and war and according to one legend she was born - more like she came out ready formed - out of Zeus' forehead/brow.

Here, in your sentence, you're dealing with a metaphor.

Malevich's abstract creation simply came into being in the same way Athena was born. Suddenly and "ready formed".

For what it's worth this is quite a challenging paragraph, and I bet even some native speakers might have a problem interpreting it ;)

I hope this helps.

Looking forward to more of your interesting questions.


English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker


I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.


I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

BSc MEd TESL post grad program for k-12 TESL post grad program for adult ed

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