English as a Second Language/3 questions


Hi Amy.
Hope you are well and do fine. Thanks for your help in advance.
I have three questions regarding translation of some parts of these sentences.

In # 1, would you please tell me what exactly "they" refer to, in the end of the sentence? I guess it refers to "rights". If I am wrong please correct me.

if deliberation must take place within the constraints of rights already set down, then instead of people reasoning over important values, preexisting consensus about the values is assumed or they are imposed.


In sentence #2, would you please tell me that if "assumes" actually is "cyclical majority problem assumes", or I am wrong?

Miller thinks that elimination of such preferences goes a long way toward meeting the cyclical majority problem which assumes the unlimited domain condition that votes may be taken over any preferences whatsoever.


In #3 please tell me do you know what "no-value & shared-value neutralism" each mean?

Pettit draws a complementary conclusion regarding state neutrality when he recommends replacing the liberal notion of ‘no-value neutralism’ with ‘shared-value neutralism’ where what is shared is the desire of all to avoid domination, and this requires collective action inspired by civic virtue.

Hello Azad,

# 1, "they" refers to values

# 2 you are correct

# 3 neutralism is the policy or advocacy of maintaining strict neutrality in foreign affairs. I have no idea though what "no value" and "shared value" neutralism may be. I'm sure the terms are defined in some policy books, but I am unfamiliar with them.

I hope this helps.



English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker


I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.


I'm a certified ESL teacher with 12 years of experience teaching K-12 and adults.

BSc MEd TESL post grad program for k-12 TESL post grad program for adult ed

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