English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1. Learning English is not an easy task, but I am determined to study hard and improve my language skills.
Learning a language requires a great deal of practice and determination.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I say also, “…but I am determined to work hard and achieve a higher level of proficiency.”?
(2.)    In the second, what could be a substitute for “determination”?

2.Samantha is determined to lose weight because she wants to keep fit for her wedding.
To improve your language skills, you should study harder. Your hard work will determine the level of success you achieve.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)  In the second, can I use the perfect tense “Samantha has determined to lose weight…”?  What is the difference in meaning between two different tenses?
(2. ) If I say “Samantha has decided  to lose weight”, does it have the same meaning as “Samantha has determined to lose weight”?

3. Costs determine prices and sales determine profit.
 Your work performance will determine your reward and how fast you get promoted.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I use the plural “profits”?
(2.)    In the second, can I use the present tense “determines”?

4 . All the flights are delayed now. Weather conditions will determine how long the passengers have to wait and when the flights will resume.
   If you are trying to lose weight, you should determine how many calories you eat/consume on a daily basis.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    Can I replace “determine” with “decide” in each of the two sentences above?
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “determine” with “calculate”?

5. The teacher will determine students’ grades according to their test results and class participation.
 It is difficult to determine why the airplane disappeared until after it is located.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first, can I change “determine” to “decide”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “It is difficult to determine the cause of the airplane’s disappearance…”?

6, Parents have an obligation to raise their children.   Children have an obligation to care for their parents when they get old.
  I used to help her a lot, but I’ve decided not to help her anymore because she made me feel I was obligated.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.) In the first sentence, what does “they” refer to? “Children” or “parents”?
(2.) In the second, does it mean the same if I leave out “I was” and say “she made me feel obligated”?

Answer
. Learning English is not an easy task, but I am determined to study hard and improve my language skills.
Learning a language requires a great deal of practice and determination.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I say also, “…but I am determined to work hard and achieve a higher level of proficiency.”? Yes
(2.)    In the second, what could be a substitute for “determination”? Willpower, perseverance

2.Samantha is determined to lose weight because she wants to keep fit for her wedding.
To improve your language skills, you should study harder. Your hard work will determine the level of success you achieve.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)  In the second, can I use the perfect tense “Samantha has determined to lose weight…”?  What is the difference in meaning between two different tenses? "has determined" makes no sense here
(2. ) If I say “Samantha has decided  to lose weight”, does it have the same meaning as “Samantha has determined to lose weight”? Has decided to lose weight is correct, has determined to lose weight is not.

3. Costs determine prices and sales determine profit.
 Your work performance will determine your reward and how fast you get promoted.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I use the plural “profits”? Yes
(2.)    In the second, can I use the present tense “determines”? Yes you can

4 . All the flights are delayed now. Weather conditions will determine how long the passengers have to wait and when the flights will resume.
   If you are trying to lose weight, you should determine how many calories you eat/consume on a daily basis.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? Yes, I'd say "passengers will have to wait" though.
(1.)    Can I replace “determine” with “decide” in each of the two sentences above? You can use decide in the second, not so much in the first. (it's not the weather that will decide, it's the people who will decide based on the weather conditions)
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “determine” with “calculate”? Yes

5. The teacher will determine students’ grades according to their test results and class participation.
 It is difficult to determine why the airplane disappeared until after it is located.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)    In the first, can I change “determine” to “decide”? I guess you could use it. It doesn't sound like the best choice of words for me.
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “It is difficult to determine the cause of the airplane’s disappearance…”? Yes

6, Parents have an obligation to raise their children.   Children have an obligation to care for their parents when they get old.
  I used to help her a lot, but I’ve decided not to help her anymore because she made me feel I was obligated.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.) In the first sentence, what does “they” refer to? “Children” or “parents”? In the second sentence "they" can refer to both - you really can't tell with the sentence worded like this.
(2.) In the second, does it mean the same if I leave out “I was” and say “she made me feel obligated”? Yes  

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

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