English as a Second Language/sentences

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1.Earthquakes and tsunamis often lead to terrible consequences that people can’t imagine.

A terrible earthquake and a consequent tsunami shook Japan, causing serious damage and casualties.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “The consequences of earthquakes and tsunamis are often unimaginable”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “A terrible earthquake was followed by a consequent tsunami, causing serious damage and casualties’?

2. Parents often warn their children to consider/think about the consequences before they act.
The chairman has to face the consequences in case his party suffers a defeat in the year-end election.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)  In the second, can I replace “face” with “take”?
(2. ) In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “face the consequences” with “take the responsibility”?

3.John was caught cheating on the exam, with the consequence of failing the course.
Peter drank and drove, with the consequence of having his license suspended.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    Can I leave out the comma in each of the two sentences?
(2.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I say, “John was caught cheating on the exam; consequently, he failed the course”?

4. Traffic is held up as a consequence of the accident.
Are you mature enough to take responsibility for the consequences of your actions?

Are both sentence grammatically correct?
(1.)    What is a substitute for “held up” and “as a consequence of”? “backed up” and “due to”?
(2.)    Does it mean the same if I leave out “the consequences of” in the second?

5. Tipping and table manners are important social conventions in the United States.
It is conventional in our society that married daughters visit their parents’ homes on the second day of the Lunar New Year.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “It is an important social convention to tip or use table manners….”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “ One of the traditional conventions in our society is that married daughters ….”?

6. Taking off your hat indoors or talking quietly in a public place is a long-established social convention
  The milk has passed its expiration date. You should throw it out.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    What is another way to rephrase the second sentence? “The milk is expired”?

Answer
1.Earthquakes and tsunamis often lead to terrible consequences that people can’t imagine.
A terrible earthquake and a consequent tsunami shook Japan, causing serious damage and casualties.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “The consequences of earthquakes and tsunamis are often unimaginable”? Yes, it's better than the original
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “A terrible earthquake was followed by a consequent tsunami, causing serious damage and casualties’? No. Using both followed and consequent is redundant.

2. Parents often warn their children to consider/think about the consequences before they act.
The chairman has to face the consequences in case his party suffers a defeat in the year-end election.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? The first isn't. It should read "Parents often advise their children to think (about the consequences) before they act."
(1.)  In the second, can I replace “face” with “take”? Yes, but "face" is more popular
(2. ) In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “face the consequences” with “take the responsibility”? No. The two expressions are not synonym. Consequence = effect, result, outcome; responsibility = task someone is expected or required to perform.

3.John was caught cheating on the exam, with the consequence of failing the course.
Peter drank and drove, with the consequence of having his license suspended.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? I don't quite know what you're trying to say with the sentences above, so please follow up - explain to me what your intended meaning is.
(1.)    Can I leave out the comma in each of the two sentences?
(2.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I say, “John was caught cheating on the exam; consequently, he failed the course”?

4. Traffic is held up as a consequence of the accident.
Are you mature enough to take responsibility for the consequences of your actions?

Are both sentence grammatically correct? Yes but in the second one I'd eliminate "the consequences of"
Are you mature enough to take responsibility for your actions?
(1.)    What is a substitute for “held up” and “as a consequence of”? “backed up” and “due to”? Yes
(2.)    Does it mean the same if I leave out “the consequences of” in the second? You should leave that out.

5. Tipping and table manners are important social conventions in the United States.
It is conventional in our society that married daughters visit their parents’ homes on the second day of the Lunar New Year.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? Yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “It is an important social convention to tip or use table manners….”? The sentence won't make sense... Actually I'm not quite sure how you want the final sentence to sound like?! Feel free to follow up.
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “ One of the traditional conventions in our society is that married daughters ….”? Yes

6. Taking off your hat indoors or talking quietly in a public place is a long-established social convention
  The milk has passed its expiration date. You should throw it out.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? Yes but "and" instead of "or" and "are long established..."
(1.)    What is another way to rephrase the second sentence? “The milk is expired”? Yes. This is what most native speakers would actually say.  

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