English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1. If you are a profit seeker, you may invest in high risk securities because the higher the risk you are willing to take, the greater your return will be.
The bad guy saved the child at the risk of losing his own life.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I say also, “….because the higher the risk of an investment, the greater the expected rate of return”?
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I say “The bad guy risked his life in saving the child”?

2. Tourists should not risk traveling to the countries on which the government has issued travel alerts.
She criticized her boss at the risk of losing her job.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “Tourists should refrain from traveling to the countries with travel alerts and warnings”?
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I say “By criticizing her boss, she risked losing her job”?

3. In the second half, Beckham injured his knee and Pele was substituted for him.
If I am sick, Laura will substitute for me.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.) In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I say “Pele substituted for him”or “Pele replaced him”? What’s the difference between the active voice (substitute for someone) and the passive voice (be substituted for someone)?
(2. ) In the second, does it mean the same if I say “Laura will be substituted for me” or “Laura will replace me”?

4. It will be too expensive to use peaches for a cake, so we have to find a good substitute for them.
 Do you compare the prices when you are shopping?

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, should I use the plural “substitutes”?

5 . John was eliminated in the first round of the contest due to intense competition.
  Because our company was facing extreme competition from others, it decided to lower the price.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, what is another word for “intense”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “Facing extreme competition from other countries, our company decided to lower the price”?

6. No one in our school can compete with John in golf because he is a pro.
 In the singing contest, signers from all over the country compete on stage for a big contract with the records company.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I replace “with” with “against”?

Answer
1. If you are a profit seeker, you may invest in high risk securities because the higher the risk you are willing to take, the greater your return will be.
The bad guy saved the child at the risk of losing his own life.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I say also, “….because the higher the risk of an investment, the greater the expected rate of return”? yes
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I say “The bad guy risked his life in saving the child”? yes

2. Tourists should not risk traveling to the countries on which the government has issued travel alerts.
She criticized her boss at the risk of losing her job.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but "for" instead of "on" in the first
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say also, “Tourists should refrain from traveling to the countries with travel alerts and warnings”? yes
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I say “By criticizing her boss, she risked losing her job”? yes

3. In the second half, Beckham injured his knee and Pele was substituted for him.
If I am sick, Laura will substitute for me.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? the first should read "Pele replaced him"
(1.) In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I say “Pele substituted for him”or “Pele replaced him”? What’s the difference between the active voice (substitute for someone) and the passive voice (be substituted for someone)? "be substituted for someone" doesn't make sense.
(2. ) In the second, does it mean the same if I say “Laura will be substituted for me” or “Laura will replace me”? "Laura will be substituted for me" sounds awkward. Laura will replace me is OK

4. It will be too expensive to use peaches for a cake, so we have to find a good substitute for them.
Do you compare the prices when you are shopping?

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, should I use the plural “substitutes”? no

5 . John was eliminated in the first round of the contest due to intense competition.
 Because our company was facing extreme competition from others, it decided to lower the price.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but the second one sounds unfinished "the price of ...what?"
(1.)    In the first sentence, what is another word for “intense”? fierce, extreme
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “Facing extreme competition from other countries, our company decided to lower the price”? yes, but again (the price of...?)

6. No one in our school can compete with John in golf because he is a pro.
In the singing contest, signers from all over the country compete on stage for a big contract with the records company.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I replace “with” with “against”? yes  

English as a Second Language

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