English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1. Small companies can hardly compete with large corporations in size and capital.
This car is economical to run because it doesn’t consume much gas.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I replace “hardly” with “rarely”?
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “consume” with “take”?

2. A good workout consumes a lot of energy, so I often eat a big meal after exercise to nourish myself.
The project will consume a great deal of time, money and resources.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first, can I change “energy” with “calories”?

3. Taking supplements is a quick way to consume vitamins.
Exercise requires a large consumption of water and energy in the body.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?

What could be a substitute for “supplements” and “consume” in the first sentence?
“Nutriments/ nutrients” and “absorb”?

4. I didn’t believe that John was innocent at first, but he convinced me with a frank statement.
Most people didn’t think that the actress deserved the award; rather, they believed that it was her beauty and popularity that convinced the jury.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the second, what is another word for “convinced”?

5. This math problem requires a lot of calculation, so try to solve it carefully.
You should calculate how many eggs you need before you bake the cake.
Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I use the plural “calculations”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “You should calculate how many eggs you need to bake the cake”?

6. George is a profit seeker. He always calculates his gains and losses before offering help.
John feels that he owes his parents a lot, so he will do anything to pay them back.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.) What is another way to say “calculates his gains and losses”?

Answer
1. Small companies can hardly compete with large corporations in size and capital.
This car is economical to run because it doesn’t consume much gas.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, does it mean the same if I replace “hardly” with “rarely”? no, hardly here means it's difficult
(2.)    In the second, does it mean the same if I replace “consume” with “take”? no, you can say "use" instead

2. A good workout consumes a lot of energy, so I often eat a big meal after exercise to nourish myself.
The project will consume a great deal of time, money and resources.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)   In the first, can I change “energy” with “calories”? yes

3. Taking supplements is a quick way to consume vitamins.
Exercise requires a large consumption of water and energy in the body.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes, but I'd say "to get the vitamins we need" instead of "consume vitamins"

What could be a substitute for “supplements” and “consume” in the first sentence?
“Nutriments/ nutrients” and “absorb”? there really is no synonym for "supplements", see above for "consume"

4. I didn’t believe that John was innocent at first, but he convinced me with a frank statement.
Most people didn’t think that the actress deserved the award; rather, they believed that it was her beauty and popularity that convinced the jury.

Are all the sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the second, what is another word for “convinced”? persuaded

5. This math problem requires a lot of calculation, so try to solve it carefully.
You should calculate how many eggs you need before you bake the cake.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but calculationS (plural)
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I use the plural “calculations”? you should
(2.)    In the second, can I say also, “You should calculate how many eggs you need to bake the cake”? yes

6. George is a profit seeker. He always calculates his gains and losses before offering help.
John feels that he owes his parents a lot, so he will do anything to pay them back.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.) What is another way to say “calculates his gains and losses”? "counts his profits and losses" but it sounds weird, I'd stick to the original, it's the expression that most, if not all native speakers would use.  

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