English as a Second Language/sentences

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Question
1. With years of hard work, John fulfilled his dream of becoming a millionaire.
When you make a promise, you should fulfill it rather than break it.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.) In the first sentence, can I replace “dream” with “goal”?
(1.)    In the second, can I say, “…you should carry it out rather than break it”?

2.Learning language skills is a great way to fulfill your potential.
Most people are looking for the jobs that can fulfill their needs and potential.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?

3. If you fail to fulfill the conditions of the contract, a penalty will be imposed.
He maintained his integrity when he was pressured to make an unfair decision.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I just say “If you fail to fulfill the contract”?
(2.)    In the second, can I say “He insisted on his integrity”?

4.When asked if he took the bribes, the government official gave an explanation at the press conference to defend his integrity.

Following a series of sharp declines in the stock prices, John decided to sell his shares to minimize his losses.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the second, can I change “following” to “due to”?

5.Supplements provide nutrients for those who don’t get sufficient vitamins from food.
He is mentally deficient.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say “…for those who are deficient in vitamins”?
What’s the difference?
(2.)    What is another way to say “mentally deficient”?

6. Many young people these days are unable to earn sufficient income to pay for their basic needs, not to mention having the ability to buy a house.
This book provides sufficient information for anyone who is preparing for the test
and wants to score high.

Are both sentences grammatically correct?
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I change “are unable to” to “don’t”?
(2.)   In the first, can I say, “not to mention their ability to buy a house”?

Answer
1. With years of hard work, John fulfilled his dream of becoming a millionaire.
When you make a promise, you should fulfill it rather than break it.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but "keep it" instead of "fulfill it"
(1.) In the first sentence, can I replace “dream” with “goal”? yes
(1.)    In the second, can I say, “…you should carry it out rather than break it”? most people would say "keep a promise" rather than anything else but it's correct to say "carry out as well"- it may sound odd to some though

2.Learning language skills is a great way to fulfill your potential.
Most people are looking for the jobs that can fulfill their needs and potential.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? I'd say "Learning a language" as you don't exactly learn "language skills"; also "looking for jobs"

3. If you fail to fulfill the conditions of the contract, a penalty will be imposed.
He maintained his integrity when he was pressured to make an unfair decision.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I just say “If you fail to fulfill the contract”? yes
(2.)    In the second, can I say “He insisted on his integrity”? no

4.When asked if he took the bribes, the government official gave an explanation at the press conference to defend his integrity.
Following a series of sharp declines in the stock prices, John decided to sell his shares to minimize his losses.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? I'd rephrase the first
When asked if he took the bribes, the government official gave an explanation at the press conference held to defend his integrity.
In order to defend his integrity, the government official gave an explanation at the press conference when asked if he took the bribes.

(1.)    In the second, can I change “following” to “due to”? yes

5.Supplements provide nutrients for those who don’t get sufficient vitamins from food.
He is mentally deficient.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes but I don't know what you mean when you say "mentally deficient"
(1.)    In the first sentence, can I say “…for those who are deficient in vitamins”? yes
What’s the difference? none
(2.)    What is another way to say “mentally deficient”? see above

6. Many young people these days are unable to earn sufficient income to pay for their basic needs, not to mention having the ability to buy a house.
This book provides sufficient information for anyone who is preparing for the test
and wants to score high.

Are both sentences grammatically correct? yes
(1.)   In the first sentence, can I change “are unable to” to “don’t”? you can but the meaning will change. There is a difference between "can't (or being unable to)" and "don't"
(2.)   In the first, can I say, “not to mention their ability to buy a house”? yes  

English as a Second Language

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Amy Baker

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I can answer question about grammar, spelling, syntax, idioms, reading and/or writing that pertain to English as a Second Language. I am knowledgeable about both TOEFL and IELTS.

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